jamiedonnelly93

04-14-2007, 07:42 AM

Music Theory For Beginners Part 2

Hey people, I hope that my last lesson was all helpful to you, here’s my second lesson on music theory. In this lesson we will talk about:

• Advanced note values and names

• Rests

• Advanced time signatures and meter

• Dots and Ties

Advanced Note Values And Names

In the last lesson we talked about Semi-Breve’s, Minim’s, Crotchets and Quavers, well there are more note values than them four and in this part of the lesson, we’ll cover the rest of them(for images of these look in the zip attachment at the bottom).

Firstly we’ll start of with a Breve. Now if you paid attention last lesson you will have noticed that we touched on the Semi-Breve which lasted 4 beats, with semi meaning half a Breve lasts 8 beats.

Next we’ll cover the Semi-Quaver, now alike the Semi-Breve meaning half a Breve then the Semi-Quaver means half a Quaver. Therefore it lasts for a quarter of a beat. 4 Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet, like we slightly covered last lesson when theirs 2 Quavers you tie them, When theirs 4Semi-Quavers you tie them. Also with drawing the Semi-Quaver at the top of its stem it has what’s known as a flag, well two of them, whereas the Quaver has one (look at the image in the zip attachment called flag).

Now for the Demi-Semi-Quaver, let me just say this first, if you have mastered the fact that a Quaver has one flag, half of that note has 2 flags well half of the Semi-Quaver, the Demi-Semi-Quaver has 3 flags, easy isn’t it? The Demi-Semi-Quaver lasts an eight of a beat so eight Demi-Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet. So if there are 8 Demi-Semi-Quavers you beam them!

Now for half a Demi-Semi-Quaver which has 4 flags (are you getting the hang of the pattern?) this is worth a sixteenth of a beat so 1 crotchet = 16 Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quavers (yes the names are getting a bit silly now). Now if you’ve noticed 2 Quavers = 1 Crotchet, 4 Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet, 8 Demi-Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet, 16 Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet so the next note smallest note will be 32 something’ = 1 Crotchet and 32 of them will beam? Yes, and you thought music theory was hard! So there are 16 Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quavers tied together, now with the Demi-Semi-Quaver having 3 flags the Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quaver has 4 Flags.

The last one we are going to study today you probably won’t ever come across but it’s called a Semi-Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quaver and 32 of them beam, the Semi-Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quaver lasts for 32nd of a beat. Now like the pattern we talked about earlier what ever fraction of the beat it is then that’s how many you tie them by! Simple.

*in 4/4 time

Rests

Rests are just like in life, when you go for a rest you stop doing what ever you were doing and chill, well that’s what you do in music, your instrument chills but alike the notes they have different signs (Pictures of them can all be seen in the zip folder)

There isn’t really that much to speak about rests as the pictures will show you them and help you understand, I suppose if you put it this way, the rest names are exactly the same names as the note value names so there’s Crotchet rests, Minim rests etc.

Advanced Time Signature And Meter

In the last lesson we talked about the time signature 4/4 well that is the most basic and we talked about how they are made with the top of the time signature meaning how many beats in the bar and the bottom means what note value. Well here’s everything you’ll need to know about time signatures for now. The meter is just the pattern of beats (strong or weak)

Now for some examples of time signatures

There is:

2/1, 2/1 means 2 Semi-Breve’s per bar so 1 bar can contain a maximum of 1 Breve, the beat is on a count of every Semi-Breve, with their being 2 beats in a bar look at the table above at what the beat or meter is.

3/2, 3/2 means 3 minim’s per bar so it can contain a maximum of 1 dotted Semi-Breve (Explained more in next part) the beat is on a count of Every Minim

4/4, 4/4 isn’t really advanced but shows you the pattern, 4/4 means 4 Crotchets per bar so the beat is on the count of every Crotchet

6/8, 6/8 is 6 Quavers per bar so it contains a maximum of 1 dotted Minim (Explained more in next part). The beat is at the count of every Quaver

Lastly 11/16, 11/16 is 11 Semi-Quavers per bar and contains a maximum of 1 Crotchet + 1 double dotted Crotchet (Explained more in next part). The beat is at the count of every Semi-Quaver.

Dots and Ties

First we’ll start with dots, dots are used to extend a beat by half it original value, if we look back to the last part of the lesson on Time Signatures And Meter you will see that 3/2 meant a maximum of one dotted Semi-Breve, this is because 3/2 can carry a maximum of 6 beats per bar and a dotted Semi-Breve equals 1 Semi Breve (4) + ½ Semi Breve (2) = Dotted Semi-Breve (6). Does that make sense?

Now theirs also something called a double dot. A double dot you might have seen on 11/16 which contained a maximum of 1 Crotchet + 1 double dotted Crotchet, well 1 dot = ½ the value when a double dot = ½ + ¼ value so one double dotted Semi-Breve would equal 4+2+1=7. Also theirs a triple dot which is quite rare. A triple dot is used to increase the value by one eighth the value after the other two dots like so. A triple dotted Semi-Breve = 4+2+1+½ = 7½.

Now for ties. Say you are playing in standard 4/4 time, and you wanted an instrument; take guitar for example, to play a note for a long time (like Gary Moore on Parisienne Walkways) you use ties between bars, so say you hold down a Semi-Breve but want him or her to sustain for 12 beats you would use 3 Semi-Breve ties.

That’s not really explained very well but hopefully you got it.

Anyway thats it for this lesson, I hope you enjoyed it, keep checking back for more lessons.

Hey people, I hope that my last lesson was all helpful to you, here’s my second lesson on music theory. In this lesson we will talk about:

• Advanced note values and names

• Rests

• Advanced time signatures and meter

• Dots and Ties

Advanced Note Values And Names

In the last lesson we talked about Semi-Breve’s, Minim’s, Crotchets and Quavers, well there are more note values than them four and in this part of the lesson, we’ll cover the rest of them(for images of these look in the zip attachment at the bottom).

Firstly we’ll start of with a Breve. Now if you paid attention last lesson you will have noticed that we touched on the Semi-Breve which lasted 4 beats, with semi meaning half a Breve lasts 8 beats.

Next we’ll cover the Semi-Quaver, now alike the Semi-Breve meaning half a Breve then the Semi-Quaver means half a Quaver. Therefore it lasts for a quarter of a beat. 4 Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet, like we slightly covered last lesson when theirs 2 Quavers you tie them, When theirs 4Semi-Quavers you tie them. Also with drawing the Semi-Quaver at the top of its stem it has what’s known as a flag, well two of them, whereas the Quaver has one (look at the image in the zip attachment called flag).

Now for the Demi-Semi-Quaver, let me just say this first, if you have mastered the fact that a Quaver has one flag, half of that note has 2 flags well half of the Semi-Quaver, the Demi-Semi-Quaver has 3 flags, easy isn’t it? The Demi-Semi-Quaver lasts an eight of a beat so eight Demi-Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet. So if there are 8 Demi-Semi-Quavers you beam them!

Now for half a Demi-Semi-Quaver which has 4 flags (are you getting the hang of the pattern?) this is worth a sixteenth of a beat so 1 crotchet = 16 Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quavers (yes the names are getting a bit silly now). Now if you’ve noticed 2 Quavers = 1 Crotchet, 4 Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet, 8 Demi-Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet, 16 Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quavers = 1 Crotchet so the next note smallest note will be 32 something’ = 1 Crotchet and 32 of them will beam? Yes, and you thought music theory was hard! So there are 16 Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quavers tied together, now with the Demi-Semi-Quaver having 3 flags the Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quaver has 4 Flags.

The last one we are going to study today you probably won’t ever come across but it’s called a Semi-Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quaver and 32 of them beam, the Semi-Hemi-Demi-Semi-Quaver lasts for 32nd of a beat. Now like the pattern we talked about earlier what ever fraction of the beat it is then that’s how many you tie them by! Simple.

*in 4/4 time

Rests

Rests are just like in life, when you go for a rest you stop doing what ever you were doing and chill, well that’s what you do in music, your instrument chills but alike the notes they have different signs (Pictures of them can all be seen in the zip folder)

There isn’t really that much to speak about rests as the pictures will show you them and help you understand, I suppose if you put it this way, the rest names are exactly the same names as the note value names so there’s Crotchet rests, Minim rests etc.

Advanced Time Signature And Meter

In the last lesson we talked about the time signature 4/4 well that is the most basic and we talked about how they are made with the top of the time signature meaning how many beats in the bar and the bottom means what note value. Well here’s everything you’ll need to know about time signatures for now. The meter is just the pattern of beats (strong or weak)

Now for some examples of time signatures

There is:

2/1, 2/1 means 2 Semi-Breve’s per bar so 1 bar can contain a maximum of 1 Breve, the beat is on a count of every Semi-Breve, with their being 2 beats in a bar look at the table above at what the beat or meter is.

3/2, 3/2 means 3 minim’s per bar so it can contain a maximum of 1 dotted Semi-Breve (Explained more in next part) the beat is on a count of Every Minim

4/4, 4/4 isn’t really advanced but shows you the pattern, 4/4 means 4 Crotchets per bar so the beat is on the count of every Crotchet

6/8, 6/8 is 6 Quavers per bar so it contains a maximum of 1 dotted Minim (Explained more in next part). The beat is at the count of every Quaver

Lastly 11/16, 11/16 is 11 Semi-Quavers per bar and contains a maximum of 1 Crotchet + 1 double dotted Crotchet (Explained more in next part). The beat is at the count of every Semi-Quaver.

Dots and Ties

First we’ll start with dots, dots are used to extend a beat by half it original value, if we look back to the last part of the lesson on Time Signatures And Meter you will see that 3/2 meant a maximum of one dotted Semi-Breve, this is because 3/2 can carry a maximum of 6 beats per bar and a dotted Semi-Breve equals 1 Semi Breve (4) + ½ Semi Breve (2) = Dotted Semi-Breve (6). Does that make sense?

Now theirs also something called a double dot. A double dot you might have seen on 11/16 which contained a maximum of 1 Crotchet + 1 double dotted Crotchet, well 1 dot = ½ the value when a double dot = ½ + ¼ value so one double dotted Semi-Breve would equal 4+2+1=7. Also theirs a triple dot which is quite rare. A triple dot is used to increase the value by one eighth the value after the other two dots like so. A triple dotted Semi-Breve = 4+2+1+½ = 7½.

Now for ties. Say you are playing in standard 4/4 time, and you wanted an instrument; take guitar for example, to play a note for a long time (like Gary Moore on Parisienne Walkways) you use ties between bars, so say you hold down a Semi-Breve but want him or her to sustain for 12 beats you would use 3 Semi-Breve ties.

That’s not really explained very well but hopefully you got it.

Anyway thats it for this lesson, I hope you enjoyed it, keep checking back for more lessons.