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Old 07-15-2006, 04:20 PM   #1
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The Theory Behind Chord Progressions

Could one of you almighty and well-educated musicians (no sarcasm intended) please explain to me the theory behind chord progressions? I know bits and pieces (such as the fact that V7 fits well with I), but any help would be great. If possible, link to another website or name a good book for study. Thanks for all your input!
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Old 07-15-2006, 04:31 PM   #2
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Old 07-15-2006, 04:34 PM   #3
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Old 07-15-2006, 04:39 PM   #4
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^Not so much.

Progressions are based off of a series of chords, an extremely common one is a I IV V I progression, meaning in the Key of G, thats G>C>D>G.

The chords can be whatever you like, but if you want it to all be diatonic (within a certain key), the chords look like this

Major: I ii iii IV V vi vii(dim)
Minor: i ii(dim) III iv v VI V (basically the same thing, starting on the 6th)

And another thing about minor, if you play in a minor key, but go out of key slightly and use a V>i, you're in harmonic minor, try it

Common Progressions
I IV V I
I IV V vi V I
I V vi ii IV I IV V (canon)

someone else add to the list.
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Old 07-15-2006, 04:55 PM   #5
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^listen to him, i just realized those links were about chord composition and not chord progressions...i guess i should read through them thoroughly next time
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Old 07-15-2006, 05:44 PM   #6
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well im thinking you wanted to know more why things work than that they actually do. so if we look that that V7-I cadence you mentioned we might start to understand it better. lets look in the key of C (cause i like it):
your V7 chord is G7, and has the notes G B D F
your I chord is C, and has the notes C E G

now, im not completly sure on the exactness of all of this, but i know this is the general concept and mostly right. you see that the B moves half a step up to C and the F moves half a step down to E. then the D moves a step in each direction to C and E while the G stays the same. as you can see, each note has a simple movement from one chord into the other that sounds very strong. but that F is important because it has that nice half step movement, which is why V7 to I is stronger than V to I.
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Old 07-15-2006, 06:29 PM   #7
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with resolution, its basically a matter of how close you can get to tones within the chord you want it to 'resolve' to.
A circle progression has no resolution because it keeps going on in that endless circle.



A V -> I progression (an authentic cadence basically) resolves fine because, in C major, G B D goes to C E G. the G from the V is held over, and the other two are a step in the scale away from a note. What makes a V7 even more tense is that the added m7 to the V (in this case, to F to the G B D) gives us a diminished fifth in there between the 7th and the 3rd. Plus the 7th wants to resolve too.


That's just V I. Each progressions explanation is different. In Jazz, ii-V-I works as part of a circle progression that uses a chromatic descending melody.
There's explanations for each individual chord progression. To explain them all in one post would be a spectacular feet.


In pop music, most chord progressions stick to overused cadences (cadence = strong chord progression basically.)
I to V, V to I, IV to V, IV to I, I to vi, vi to ii, and such and such, are all common chord progressions.
Each one has a different explanation to its resolution or build up.
most of the time chord progressions stick to one key, this is true; and as stated before the chords in a key are I ii iii IV V vi vii(dim) for a major key.

However often times they will leave key... but this goes into modulation. Modulation is when you switch keys for a while to give it a better sounding... part, or whatever. Most pop music modulates to the V- this is because it is the closest related key signature, other than vi, but vi is really cheating honestly. lol.


Hope that helped.
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Old 07-17-2006, 03:02 AM   #8
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I'd have liked to have responded to this sooner, in fact there was another very similar thread I wanted to respond to also

in the same way... but computer issues stopped me the first time, and personal issues delayed me this time. But finally I think I'm set, so...

Why don't I explain how to build progressions indefinitely? If you've got a pretty good understanding of the major scale, this is going to be really simple.

Tonal music, simply enough, strives for V-I. If there are only two chords they'll usually be these two. We'll call that Dominant - Tonic, or just D-T for short. Since most progressions start on I, most comonly you'd see this as T-D-T.

Normally you just don't see those two chords, so we can extend that progression simply to I-IV-V-I, these are your primary chords, here we have Tonic - Dominant Preperation - Dominant - Tonic, or T-DP-D-T. Now it gets easy, we can build a grid with four columns, and two rows, and fill in the top row with our most common progression:

Code:
T DP D T |-------------------| | I | IV | V | I | |----|----|----|----| | | | | | |-------------------|


The next step is to add in subsitutions for these chords. The easiest way to explain this is probably to just tell you what they are: vi can substitute for I, ii can substitute for IV, and vii can substitute for V. Knowing that, we can fill in the bottom half of our grid:
Code:
T DP D T |--------------------| Primary...| I | IV | V | I | |----|----|-----|----| Secondary.| vi | ii | vii | vi | |--------------------|


The first type of harmonic motion is movement left to right on this grid, either straight left to right, or diagonally up or down. For instance, I - IV, or ii - V, or vii - vi, etc. This is harmonic progression.
Knowing that, you can also move backwards the other way, with a different sound. ie. IV - I. This is a retrogression.
The easiest type of harmonic motion is probably the repetition. This is no movement, or a movement straight up/down on this grid. For instance i-vi, or vii-V, or ii-ii (including changing inversions).
Finally, you can use any of these harmonic sequences, and skip a normally expected chord, such as I-V, skipping IV. This is harmonic ellision. The IV chord is "ellided" into the V chord.

To notate these I'll use P for progression, R for retrogression, and S for repetition (or static motion) and E for ellisions if they occur. Ultimately what each progression tries to do is extend, in some form, that T-DP-D-T pattern:
Code:
P R P P I - IV - I - V - I The simplest way to extend the entire pattern is to insert just one chord. P R P P P I - IV - I - IV - V - I (note here that the I-IV portion repeats in its entirety, you won't hear the IV - I ineither of these two as a retrogression, but sort of like a repeated section). P R S P P I - iii - ii - IV - V - I This is a little strange, I didn't say anything about the iii chord, it's tonally "distant" from the tonic, and so kind of hard to use in a chord sequence and not sound kind of out of touch with the key. I call it a progression here because the tonic can move to any chord, and I call its 'resolution' a retrogression, because most of the time chords move up if the move by second. Really, there's no good way to label it with the system I've given, since iii is kind of a 'free' chord. I feel like doing one in minor: P S P P P P P P i - iv - ii(dim) - V - VI - iv - ii(dim) - V - I Its worth noting the iv-ii section that ties this together on both sides. I like how the T-DP-D-T here is so straight forward. Something backwards: R R P P R R V - IV - I - ii - V - IV - I . . . This is just a slight change on V - IV - I, you should get that, backwards right away. Consistent retrogression is common in some styles, esp some types of rock. P R(E) P S R P P R P S P P P P I - V - iii - ii - IV - I - V - vi - iii - IV - ii - V - vi - V - I Here the V-iii is a big retrogression, which is why it stands out so clearly. In both halves the ii-IV or IV-ii acts as a single unit. Near the end I labled vi-V as a P, remember here the vi is acting as a substitution for the tonic, and the tonic can move to any other chord as a progression (the exception is vi-iii). Note the other retrogressions act as a way to repeat entire sections (the iii-DP-[D]-(T)-D- theme that extends the IV-V throughout).

You can keep this up for quite a while, and really never run out of ideas. There are also a lot of other ways to elaborate certain progression elements.

I want to talk about chromatic harmony here, but there's a lot to chromatic harmony, and I don't think I can cover all of it in any decent way, so I want to present some basic ideas. First of all it needs to be said that a harmony doesn't have to sound good. That's a hard concept to get together at first, but if you look at the following chord, and listen to it, I'm pretty sure we can all agree that it doesn't sound good:
Code:
E:--6-- B:--0-- G:--5-- D:--0-- A:--3-- E:--0-- And yet, that harmony makes sense in some situations: E:-0--3--5--6--7--5--2-- B:-0--0--0--0--0--0--2-- G:-0--0--4--5--6--5--2-- D:-2--2--0--0--0--4--4-- A:-2--2--2--3--4--5--2-- E:-0--0--0--0--0-----2-- and so on

The point being that any set of notes can, and sometimes will, act as an appropriate harmony in some cases, depending on how its voice led, and what have you. The reason I bring this up is because there are times when it might make sense to select a harmony that has no foundation in key, or progression, but makes sense musically. If you see something that does make sense to you in some way, and you like the way it sounds, then use it.

With all of that said, there are four basic types of chromatic harmony, presented here in no particular order. The first is that which comes from voice leading through some system that is at some point non-diatonic. That's a small part of what I just did above. This comes from an understanding of voice leading, and part writing, and is something that you just do and get comfortable with as part of your writing... I could give rules for all of it, but a lot of it is artistic, and I'm not in the mood to be teaching part writing (which isn't particularly in the scope of this thread anyway).

The second is probably the easiest to understand on the guitar, and it's parallelism. Unlike most instruments, especially keyboards, parallelism comes naturally to the guitar, and breaks just about every 'rule' in theory -- you know, you've heard 'avoid parallel fifths and octaves' etc. It's exactly what its name sounds like, the strict chromatic shift of a harmonic unit (think chord). Usually only the root pattern follows any particular scale (obviously the other notes follow... strictly), and the root motion, not the chord is usually built from some symmetrical or partly symmetrical scale, diminished, whole tone, etc. This is the other part of what I'm doing above, shifting the same pattern straight up.

An example of parallelism, using a maj7 4 string shape built on a h/w scale:
Code:
E:--------------------------------------------------------- B:--5--6--8--9--8--6--11-12--9--8--6--5--11-9--8--6--8--5-- G:--4--5--7--8--7--5--10-11--8--7--5--4--10-8--7--5--7--4-- D:--5--6--8--9--8--6--11-12--9--8--6--5--11-9--8--6--8--5-- A:--3--4--6--7--6--4--9--10--7--6--4--3--9--7--6--4--6--3-- E:---------------------------------------------------------
This is another kind of system that can be carried on pretty much forever. Parallelism is probably the easiest atonal system for guitar; it sounds kind of 'directionless', but there are a lot of different feelings you can get out of it, and a lot of different things you can throw together. You can build entire songs off of such systems, or you can use a parallel system to bridge between two different sections, or as a cheap way of modulating between keys (often easier than any other, but not necessarily better). Something that deserves to be noted here is that if your basic harmony has an interval that can't be built from the systemic scale (ie, the 7th in the maj7 can't be taken from a h/w scale), then all twelve chromatic pitches are open melodically as you shift over the various chords.

Another system for chromatic harmony, and musically speaking the simplest, is chord borrowing. Generally speaking, you can take chords out of either a key's major or minor system and replace in the other. This is more common in minor keys than in major keys, generally speaking, which is one of the reasons there are so many "diatonic" chords to choose from in a minor key; for example ii (minor) instead of ii(dim). As an example of this I'll use the last chord sequence I wrote when explaining chord sequences: I - V - iii - ii - IV - I - V - vi - iii - IV - ii - V - vi - V - I, and instead change it to: i - V - iii - ii - iv - I - V - VI - III - IV - ii - V - vi - V - I. Or actually putting that to chords -- Em - B - G#m - F#m - Am - E - B - C# (maj) - G# (maj) - A - F#m - B - C#m - B - E.

You can do this somewhat liberally, as long as you're fairly tasteful about it, and just add new tonalities to otherwise diatonic progressions. Again, this opens up different choices for melodic notes as you progress over the various "out of key" chords.
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Old 07-17-2006, 03:03 AM   #9
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Finally, I'll talk again about secondary dominants... I went over this once, elsewhere but there seems to be some confusion on the matter.

First we'll talk about circle progressions. The circle of fifths, clockwise, starting at F goes F - C - G - D - A - E - B. I want to start talking about it with C as the primary point on the circle, and look at it from the perspective of harmony. From C - G is a fifth. If C is our key, that means the circle starts out, clockwise, I - V. Adding to that the next note, from G - D is again a fifth, and D is ii in C. The three together C - G - D: I - V - ii. From D to A is again a fifth -- I imagine this is why it's called the circle of fifths... -- and we get C - G - D - A, or I - V - ii - iv.

Starting to see a pattern? I would have figured the ii - V - I gave it away...

In its entirety, the diatonic portion of the circle of fifths as it relates to harmony goes (IV-)vii-iii-vi-ii-V-I. The IV-vii here is a little off, but the fact that it's a tritone instead of a perfect fifth is irrelevant. The point is that this is our full circle progression, and in such a progression the root of the chord descends by fifth. The 'jazz' progression ii-V-I is just the shortest version of this progression. Such a progression is always a progressive harmony. In other words we would always notate such a chord sequence as being a progression, even though it might not seem like it; and indeed, other than the vii-iii, you can use the grid method I first showed to see exactly that.

You can also continue further, going into chromatic roots. This is the descending fifth method of harmony.

Secondary dominants work closely with descending fifth harmony, if you'll notice that V - I is commonly seen as a perfect cadence, then it follows that ii - V should sound very similar, and indeed it does, all the way down the line. The dominant chord for any key, regardless of it being major or minor, is first and foremost, however, a major chord, and we can see quickly that most of our chords in the circle progression are not major at all. However, the difference between a major and a minor chord is one simple half step, so it's quite easy to change such chords to be major. One accidental isn't a big deal: II - V - I; a seeming "double perfect cadence". Here II acts as the V of V (notated V/V). Next we'd have VI - ii - V - I; here V/ii - ii - V - I. These can be combined: VI - II - V - I; V/ii - V/V - V - I. And so on.

Such chords can also be raised to a full dominant 7th, even when it may cause two chromatic tones, without strongly affecting the tonality of the progression.

There is, also, another type of secondary dominant. If you look at the grid again, or hopefully you remember, vii can substitute for V. The leading tone chord is, in its own way, also a dominant chord, and acts very strongly wanting to resolve back to one. One of the intersting things about the full circle progression is that it can be interrupted, if I - IV - vii then we're arrived at a dominant, and that dominant can immediately resolve back to I. It stands to reason then, that such artificial leading tones can appear before another chord, and resolve strongly to that chord, even when that chord is not the actual tonic. And so they can: I - ii - IV - IV/6 - #iv(dim)/6 - V - I (the 6 here indicates first inversion, diminished chords are most commonly seen in first inversion, and I tend towards that in my examples). In C this would look like C - Dm - F - F/A - Fdim/A - G - I. In tab that might translate as:
Code:
e--3--5--8---------------3-- B--5--6--10--10--10--12--5-- G--5--7--10--10--11--12--5-- D--5--7--10--10--10--12--5-- A--3--5--8---12--12--10--3-- E---------------------------


Combined with chord substitutions and alterations, these ideas can just about carry you on forever without even getting into extended harmonies.
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Old 07-17-2006, 05:32 AM   #10
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Uh....quite simple
All songs will be based upon
Major chords...the root chord, the 4th and the 5th
Minor chords...the 2nd and the 6th
Somehow, nearly alll sngs will consist of only these chords...usually the the 1st, 4th , 5th and 6th
So for example....if the song is in C....there will be loads of Cs, F(4th), G(5th) and Am(6th)
Get the pic? Kl.....


that is a very general statement that in no way explains the theory of chord progressions. dont post if you will say misleading things.
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Old 07-17-2006, 06:21 AM   #11
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Thats awesome, ive been trying to learn similar, thanks corwinoid

*hits print*
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Old 07-17-2006, 03:36 PM   #12
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Corwin, I've been looking into chromatic melodies for sometimes, and basically all this time I was looking for you way of summarizing each type and what way of getting them. I knew them all but didn't know what to call them because no one taught them to me. Much thanks.
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Old 07-17-2006, 04:09 PM   #13
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Wow, Corwin that was so helpful, thank you so very much

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Old 07-19-2006, 10:32 AM   #14
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corwinoid wow dude thats some awesome theory!!

did you learn that from a book or just from lessons or UG?

if so do you know about a book that teaches "out of key" stuff?

does mark levines jazz theory book cover stuff like that?
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Old 07-19-2006, 11:23 AM   #15
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dude, most of what he just said reaches for "out of key" stuff... if you read it.
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Old 07-19-2006, 03:14 PM   #16
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sorry but i did read it and i didnt understand some of it, especially the parallel part. (no offence corwinoid, im just little slow)

im not triying to be a sucker here, i'm just trying to learn some more of this stuff, so could one of you experts hook me up with a book that explains chord progresion theory and like this "out of key" things?
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Old 02-15-2007, 01:38 AM   #17
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Corwinoid, I'd have to say your theory is rather confusing, yet you made it somehow work. A couple of corrections, though:

-And so they can: I - ii - IV - IV/6 - #iv(dim)/6 - V - I (the 6 here indicates first inversion, diminished chords are most commonly seen in first inversion, and I tend towards that in my examples).

Most music theory people would not call the 5th chord in that progression a #iv(dim)/6. Rather, it is called vii(dim)/V, making the V (or V7) fit. It's called a secondary vii. It is not as common as a secondary dominant, but it is still used quite a bit in classical music and theory.

-The dominant chord for any key, regardless of it being major or minor, is first and foremost, however, a major chord, and we can see quickly that most of our chords in the circle progression are not major at all.

Dominants do NOT have to be major. It is a rare occurance when they are not, but saying that they are always is untrue. In natural minor, in fact, the dominant is minor. Most composers try to stay away from it because of the strong Perfect Authentic Cadence of a V-I, but that's not to say that a minor dominant chord can't be a passing chord.


This, of course, is just nit-picking. I am not saying that you are wrong, but that is what "technically" right (according to Kostka and Payne). Great job explaining a whole year of beginning to intermediate theory into 1 page. Unfortunately, I think most of it was lost on the general public.
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Old 02-15-2007, 09:55 AM   #18
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I am going to sound very very very dumb here but what chords are in each of the I-IV-V-I progressions? Is there a table or a formula somewhere?
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Old 02-15-2007, 09:56 AM   #19
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^Do you mean you want a list of the I - IV - V progression in every key?
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Old 02-15-2007, 11:10 AM   #20
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I am going to sound very very very dumb here but what chords are in each of the I-IV-V-I progressions? Is there a table or a formula somewhere?

Well, it is quite easy to find if you know what chords are in what key.. Take the major key you want...Let's say G.

G A B C D E F#.

That results in...

G, Am, Bm, C, D, Em, and F#dim.

So I-IV-V-I would be G-C-D-G.

That's same pattern of chords (I=major chord, ii=minor chord, iii=minor chord, IV=major chord, etc..) applies for C major, E major, Bb major...the major keys. So all you have to do is figure out the notes and how to play the chords. Hope this helped.
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