Learning Music Theory. The Beginning

author: slash_pwns date: 10/06/2005 category: for beginners
rating: 9.2 / votes: 534 
Learning Music Theory. The Beginning
Table of Contents: 1.0 - Introduction 1.1 - Where to start? 1.2 - The first 10 thing to learn 2.0 - What intervals and steps are 2.1 - Interval guide 2.2 - Steps 2.3 - Tones and semi-tones 3.0 - Understanding the Chromatic scale 4.0 - The Major scale 4.1 - Triads 5.0 - The Circle of Fifths and Key Signatures Introduction 5.1 - The Circle of Fifths 5.2 - Key Signatures - How they work 6.0 - Chord Construction 6.1 - Extending 6.2 - Altering 6.3 - Suspended Chords 6.4 - Inversions 7.0 - The meaning of "Diatonic" and what it does 7.1 - Diatonic in chords 7.2 - Diatonic in scales 7.3 - E# and B# DO exist 8.0 - Finding out what chords are in what key 9.0 - Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor, Melodic Minor scales Introduction 9.1 - Natural Minor Scale 9.2 - Harmonic Minor Scale 9.3.0 - Melodic Minor Ascending 9.3.1 - Melodic Minor Descending 9.4 - What chords do these scales go with? 10.0 - The Modes of the Major scale Introduction 10.1 - Using the intervals 10.2 - Using the Steps 10.3 - Using the modes over chords 11.0 - Applying #1-9 on the guitar Introduction 11.1 - Applying "What Intervals and Steps are" 11.2 - Applying "Understanding the Chromatic Scale" 11.3 - Applying "The major scale and Triads" 11.4 - Applying "Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales" 11.5 - Applying "The Modes of the Major scale"

1.0 - Introduction

So you've seen people talking their heads off about "Lydian sharp 11 dominant 9" and you have no idea what they're talking about, or maybe you're interested in starting to learn music theory. Well, it's a great choice to come this route, as theory can make your music excel to great heights, and it lets you know what you're doing, and why. I chose to learn music theory because I wasn't much of a song writer and wanted my music to sound good. Plus, on the forums on this site, I would visit "Musicians Talk" and not know what was going on. So I've learned quite a bit and have prepared this list for you, someone new to music theory, or someone who needs a nice refresher. In this lesson, you will need no knowledge of previous theory, but you will need to know that the notes only go to G and what sharps (#) and flats (b) are. Also keep in mind you might see parts from other lesson I have written, as I can copy from them all I want, but if I didn't write the lesson, I will link to it. Have fun!

1.1 - Where to start?

Since I am an avid believer of not using steps, except for the major scale, you are going to have to learn what intervals are, and what steps are. Once you have learned how to get the major scale, all the #9, and b7 will come into the clear and become understandable. The major scale is the basis of which pretty much all chords and scales are derived from. If you've ever heard "1 3 5" or "1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1" you will know that those "formulas" are in relation to the major scale.

1.2 - The first 10 things to learn

This is a list for easy reference, and everything is explained down the in this article. 1, being the first thing to learn, etc. 01. What Intervals and Steps are 02. Understanding the Chromatic Scale 03. The major scale 04. The Circle of Fifths and Key signatures. 05. Chord Construction 06. The meaning of "Diatonic" and what it does 07. Finding out what chords are in what key 08. Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales 09. The Modes of the Major scale 10. Applying 1-9 on the guitar I will go into each and every one of these so you, the beginner can understand them.

2.0 - What Intervals and Steps are

First, I'll start with intervals and steps, as they are critical in learning how everything works, and they help you understand the major scale, and almost everything on this list. And interval is the space between one note and another. When you see 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1, those are intervals. Learning intervals is very important when learning everything in this article, because I dislike steps. I will get into that more in the steps section.

2.1 - Interval guide

This is an easy reference chart to look at for naming intervals. This example is in the key of C, for simplicity, but can be applied to any root note to find the intervals of that key.
Interval | Name                   | Note.(In C)
-----------------------------------------------
       1 | Unison (root note)     | C          
      b2 | Minor Second           | Db         
       2 | Major Second           | D          
      #2 | Augmented Second       | D#         
      b3 | Minor Third            | Eb         
       3 | Major Third            | E          
       4 | Perfect Fourth         | F          
      #4 | Augmented Fourth       | F#         
      b5 | Diminished Fifth       | Gb         
       5 | Perfect Fifth          | G          
      #5 | Augmented Fifth        | G#         
      b6 | Minor Sixth            | Ab         
       6 | Major Sixth            | A          
      #6 | Augmented Sixth        | A#         
     bb7 | Diminished Seventh     | Bbb        
      b7 | Minor Seventh          | Bb         
       7 | Major Seventh          | B          
       8 | Unison (Octave higher) | C          
      b9 | Minor Ninth            | Db         
       9 | Major Ninth            | D          
      #9 | Augmented Ninth        | D#         
-----------------------------------------------
etc. The intervals repeat, where 2 = 9, 3 = 10, 4 = 11, etc. Notice that you're adding 7 to get the octave higher interval. For those who don't know what an octave is: An octave is the same exact note only played higher. Ex. middle C on a piano, and the next C, going higher are an octave apart. Just like b9 is an octave higher than b2. When dealing with intervallic inversions (more on that later, this needs to be said in the interval section) you need to know a couple things. You have 4 perfect intervals. Unison, Fourth, Fifth, and Octave. A perfect interval inverts to a perfect interval, and when you ad the interval numbers together, you will always get 9. So if you know a P4 inverts to another perfect interval, you know (9-4 = 5, P inverts to P) so a P4 inverts to a P5. Same thing with unison. Unison inverts to the octave. The other intervals (2, 3, 6, 7) are either minor or major, and a major interval inverts to a minor one, and vice versa. So with your formula, you can find that a minor third inverts to a major sixth (3 + 6 = 9). Then an augmented interval inverts to a diminished interval. A perfect interval goes right to diminished when its flattened, and all intervals go right to augmented when sharpened. An inverted interval is the same as a normal interval but instead of going up the chart (1-b2, ex) you are going down. Here's a chart for your inversions.
P1 - P8
m2 - M7
M2 - m7
m3 - M6
M3 - m6
P4 - P5
A4 - D5

D7 - A2

P = Perfect
m = Minor
M = Major
D = Diminished
A = Augmented
Some intervals aren't used as much as others, but still exist. b10 is still an acceptable name, but will more commonly be call #9. 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths are used more often than their enharmonic (Enharmonic- Same note; different name) siblings.

2.2 - Steps, 2.3 - Tones and Semi-Tones

Steps. These are what many beginners use to form scales and the such, but here's what I'm going to do. I'll explain the steps and show you how to use them, but it's up to you whether you use steps or intervals. A choice! Steps can identify how far two notes are apart and they can (if you must) form scales. There are two common types of steps. A whole step and a half step. A whole step (Indicated by the letter "W") which is two frets. E - F# is a whole step. I've seen people who think E-F is a whole step. It is not. Two frets! This makes a half step self explanatory. It's one fret. E-F, G-G# and half steps apart. This will all make sense after reading the section just below, 3.0- Understanding the Chromatic scale. Right now steps might seem a little pointless but they play a big part in the next section. Tones and semitones are the same as steps, just with a different name. I use steps throughout, but you can think of them as tones throughout:
T = Tone = Whole step
S = Semitone = Half Step

3.0 - Understanding the Chromatic Scale

The Chromatic is very simple and easy to understand but it is important and it's very helpful to know. It makes it a breeze to memorize the notes on the fret board, and just know notes in general. The Chromatic scale is a series of 12 notes starting from any note (doesn't matter which one... You could use D# for all I care) and going up by half steps. Ex. playing any open string, and preceding to play each note, going up by one fret each time will give you a chromatic scale. But... There's a catch! Not every note has a sharp/flat between them. This applies to all the notes except between B - C and E - F. There is nothing between B - C and E - F. Your chromatic scale (in C) is:
C C#/Db D D#/Eb E F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B C
Remember the enharmonic notes! D# is enharmonic to Eb. It is indicated with a "/". Know it inside and out, as you should. Very important stuff. As short of a section this takes, it is just as important as the others.

4.0 - The Major Scale

Possible the most important thing here. Everything from chords to scales is derived from the major scale. You can even use the major scale when soloing and writing, as it's a normal scale too. It's just more important. The formula, in steps for the major scale is W W H W W W H. You apply that in any key (I'm using C again) and you get the major scale.
C D E F G A B C 
W W H W W W H
Notice how those notes fit right into the formula? Let's try it with E.
E F# G# A B C# D# E
W W H W W W H
Apply that to any note you want to find its major scale. You must know this. Memorize the WWHWWWH however you want, and once you know the major scales (Wait for Circle Of Fifths, it helps) everything is dramatically easier.

4.1 - Triads

Triads are three note chords. I'm going to slip this in before chord construction while you're hot of the press of the major scale. I'll also teach you the way to make chords with intervals (as that how they're done). There are 4 types of triads. Major, Minor, Augmented, Diminished. They are each different in formation and sound different. Four different formulas... Easy to remember, ok?
Major: 1 3 5

Minor: 1 b3 5

Augmented: 1 3 #5

Diminished: 1 b3 b5
Major Triads are unaltered. You take the first, third and fifth notes of the major scale. The major chord you want (F, for example) is the scale you use. F uses F major scale, C uses C major scale, etc... In C you have C E G, in F you have F A C, and so on. Another way to say this is "Root, Major Third, and Perfect Fifth". Minor Triads are like the major triads, in that you do the same thing to form them except you lower the third by one half step. In C you get C Eb G, E is E G B, and so on. Another way to say it is "Root, Minor Third, and Perfect Fifth". Augmented Triads follow the same rule for creating them. You always use the major scale to make chords. Always. Same as the major triad, but you're raising the fifth by a half step. In C, C E G#, A is A C# E#. Augmented Triads can be said as "Root, Major Third, and Augmented Fifth". Augmented triads are stacked major thirds. Diminished Triads, like all the other ones are based off the major scale. You are lowering the third AND the fifth in the formula. In C it is C Eb Gb, A is A C Eb. Diminished Triads are "Root, Minor Third, and Diminished Fifth". Remember how I said Augmented Triads were stacked major thirds? Well, diminished triads are stacked minor thirds. This knowledge will come in handy in the chord construction section.

5.0 - The Circle of Fifths and Key Signatures Introduction

The Circle of Fifths (Short form - Co5) is a tool to help you with major scales and Key Signatures. In this section I'll show you the Co5, how it works, the actual circle, and I'll move on to key signatures, explaining what they are and what they do. The Co5 is a must know for all theory beginners because it helps you identify major scales, and it becomes easy to play in key.

5.1 - The Circle of Fifths

The CoF (or Co5) is your tool to find what notes are in what key. This is very useful to me and many other people, but if you don't want to use it, and can remember all the major scales another way, that's fine. As long as you know the info it's all good. As you move clockwise from C, you go up a fifth. This is the Circle of Fifths:
Notice how G is a perfect fifth from C, B is from E, etc... You don't really have to memorize this but it does help. If you can picture a fifth interval in your head (think power chords) then this isn't hard to memorize at all. Starting at the top, at C there are no sharps or flats. As you turn clockwise (To G) you add 1 sharp to the key signature, until you get to F#. Same with going to F. You add one flat to the key signature. How do you know what sharp or flat to add? Well, here is the order:
Sharps: F C G D A E B
Flats: B E A D G C F
Sharps to the left, and flats to the right. So if we know D has two sharps, then we look at the line here. F# and C# are the sharps in the key of D. Now take Eb. We know from the Co5 that it has 3 flats, and the line tells us the first 3 flats are B, E and A. So we know Eb had Bb, Eb, and Ab in it. This is what helps you will the major scales. Since we know D has F# and C#, we then know D major scale is D E F# G A B C# D. In Eb, we know it would be Eb F G Ab Bb C D Eb. You can do this for every key. Take any note off there, find how many flats or sharps it has, then look at the line to see what flats or sharps it has. That way you can find the major scale of any key. The key with the most sharps in its key signature is C#. For flats, it's Cb. Notice how those scales are directly opposite each other in the CoF. Likewise, the scales with one sharp/flat, G and F, are opposite each other. The same applies to D and Bb. Another interesting aspect of the CoF is that the notes the furthest apart are always a tritone apart. C is a tritone away from Gb and F#, Db and C# are a tritone away from G, etc. This relationship should reinforce the concept that a tritone is right in the middle of the octave. What about minor keys you ask? Here's a simple trick: Look at the above picture of the circle of fifths side ways, starting from A. A is the relative minor to C. Same rules apply. Dm has 1 flat, and it is B, so we know Dm scale is D E F G A Bb C D. More on minor scales later.

5.2 - Key Signatures. How They Work

Key signatures make reading music much easier, and they tell what key the song is in. Key signatures help when composing pieces also. In your key signature say you have a Bb, and an Eb. From Co5 you know that's the key of Bb major. All notes throughout the piece that are B and E are to be played as Bb and Eb. This makes writing music easier, so you don't have to use so many accidentals (accidentals - sharps and flats). You won't find key signatures so much on conventional TAB, but on sheet music and Power Tabs, and even Guitar One transcriptions there are key signatures. So, with your Bb and Eb in the key signature, all B's and E's are to be played as Bb and Eb throughout, unless there is a natural sign () (Google the natural sign - I can't type it). With Co5, you know what flats are in what key signature. Here's a list, with both sharps and flats, for easy reference.
C major: No flats/sharps
G major: F#
D major: F# C#
A major: F# C# G#
E major: F# C# G# D#
B major: F# C# G# D# A#
F# major: F# C# G# D# A# E#
C# major: F# C# G# D# A# E# B#
*****************************
C major: No flats/sharps
F major: Bb
Bb major: Bb Eb 
Eb major: Bb Eb Ab
Ab major: Bb Eb Ab Db 
Db major: Bb Eb Ab Db Gb 
Gb major: Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb 
Cb major: Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb

6.0 - Chord Construction

Here's how you make chords. Chord construction is very important is you've ever wanted to make a chord, or learn more chords and not known how. Let's get right into it. Since you already know your 4 triads:
Major - 1 3 5

Minor - 1 b3 5

Augmented - 1 3 #5

Diminished - 1 b3 b5
That's great. Because that is the beginning of chord construction. You already know the basics of it, but I'll teach you how to alter them and extend them to get the chords you want for your own playing.

6.1 - Extending

This how you can make other chords that are different from your triads. All you really do is extend your triads in this section, and then we'll alter them in the next section. I'll give you some formulas for extended chords here.
_7 (dominant 7th): 1 3 5 b7

maj7 (major 7th) : 1 3 5 7

m7 (minor 7th) : 1 b3 5 b7
Those are your 3 most common extensions, and they can go even farther, but hers some examples.
C7 : C E G Bb

Cmaj7: C E G B

Cm7 : C Eb G Bb
Now we can extend those to 9, 11, and 13. You must have a 7th degree in the scale to call it _maj9, or _11, because the 7th tone is what "supports" the further extensions. Without the 7th degree (b7, or 7) your 9, 11, or 13 degrees become an "add chord"... Add chords explained in the next section!
_9 : 1 3 5 b7 9
_11: 1 3 5 b7 (9) 11
_13: 1 3 5 b7 (9) (11) 13
The numbers in brackets represent the optional notes. You can still have G13 without the 9 and 11. Also, every chord where the fifth is unaltered, or needed, it can be omitted.
_maj9 : 1 3 5 7 9
_maj11: 1 3 5 7 (9) 11
_maj13: 1 3 5 7 (9) (11) 13

_m9 : 1 b3 5 b7 9
_m11: 1 b3 5 b7 (9) 11
_m13: 1 b3 5 b7 (9) (11) 13
What about the diminished and augmented triads? Can you extend them too? Yes.
_7 ( = dim): 1 b3 b5 bb7.
These notes are all a minor third away from each other, until you extend more.
_9 : 1 b3 b5 bb7 9
_11: 1 b3 b5 bb7 (9) 11
_13: 1 b3 b5 bb7 (9) (11) 13

_+7 (+ = aug): 1 3 #5 b7
_+9 : 1 3 #5 b7 9
_+11 : 1 3 #5 b7 (9) 11
_+13 : 1 3 #5 b7 (9) (11) 13
Remember, those are all in relation to the major scale, and the 9 is enharmonic to the 2, etc... They don't have to be an octave higher, because you shouldn't name a chord _7(add2) because the 2nd is better named as a 9, making _9.

6.2 - Altering

This is how you can make your chords suit your needs, and also in this section as well as altering, I'll show you some other extended chords that could be considered "altered". Most alterations explain themselves. If the name says Em7b5, then you know it's an Em7, with a b5. The construction for that would be 1 b3 b5 b7. Some common alterations you'll see are:
b5
#5
b6
b9
#9
#11
b13
With those you can produce chords like E7#9, Fmaj7(#11), Cmaj7#5, Bm7(b9), etc... But remember if your alteration is a b5, your formula changes to 1 3 b5, not 1 3 5 b5. Some not so common chords that can still sound good. _m/maj7 (aka m/M7, its minor/major seventh. A minor triad with major seventh) 1 b3 5 7 _m7b5 (It looks altered, and it is, but its best name is _half diminished, or ø) 1 b3 b5 b7. Use alterations as you please, but remember, they're probably going to put you out of key. Another part in altering - add chords. When you see Cadd9 or C(9) that is an add chord. Not to be confused with a dominant chord, the note is in (brackets). You can add:
2...9
4..11
6..13
They are enharmonic, remember!

6.3 - Suspended Chords

Suspended chords are neither minor nor major. Suspended means you take the 3rd out and replace it with a 2nd or a 4th. There are 3 common types of suspended chords:
_sus2 : 1 2 5
_sus4 : 1 4 5
_sus (aka _7sus4): 1 4 5 b7
You can do crazy things, like _9sus4, which would leave you with 1 2 4 5 b7 9, but you have to use common sense to figure those out. C9sus4 can also be named as Gm11. The name you choose will depend on the context the chord is used in. Not much to say about these, but remember they are chords too, just they aren't minor, or major.

6.4 - Inversions

Inversions are slighter harder than what we've been doing, but are easy to remember. Inversion means that you don't use the root, or the 1 as the bass note of the chord. For instance C/E can be labelled differently. When working with inversions its good to know the intervals of the chords already. A First Inversion is when the 3rd of the chord is the bass note. C, with the base note E (or C/E) can be called C, in the first inversion. When the 5th tone is the bass note, we have a second inversion. C/G is C in the second inversion. When the 7th tone is the bass note, we have a third inversion. Guess what happens when the 9th tone is the bass note? Fourth inversion.
C (first inversion): E G C
C (2nd inversion) : G C E
C7 (3rd inversion) : Bb C E G
etc.

7.0 - The Meaning of "Diatonic" and What It Does

"Diatonic" means that in a 7 tone scale, such as the major scale, you use each note (A-G, with a sharp or flat) only once. That's why you don't see C major scale as C D Fb F G A B B#. Diatonic also means you follow the formula. In a 7 chord the formula is 1 b3 b5 bb7. The tones (in C) are C Eb Gb Bbb. That is diatonic. You don't have C D# F# A, because that doesn't follow the formula. Sure, it has the same sound and you can't tell the difference without knowing, but it helps you organize tones, and help you figure out a chord or a scale without having much trouble.

7.1 - Diatonic in Chords

As explained above, diatonic formulas apply to chords. If it says 1 3 5, then you're using the 1, 3 and the 5, not the 1, 3 and the bb6. Chords are given specific formulas for a reason! So use 'em. It'll help you out down the road and organize your thoughts.

7.2 - Diatonic in Scales

Yes! It's everywhere! You look at the scale formula (Again, the formula is there for a reason), say its 1 b3 #5 b7 (random) then you have (in C) C Eb G# Bb, not C D# G# A#, or any of the like. There for a reason. Using diatonic in scales is very important when trying to make your own scales, and finding out what one is. As you can tell from this section, I'm a fan of diatonic stuff. You should be too

7.3 - E# and B# Do Exist!

C'mon, you couldn't have though they didn't exist. They are perfectly valid notes, and are common place in scales. When you were reading the Co5 part and wondered what I was doing with the E# and B#... Well, they are used for diatonic purposes. Take the C# major scale for example: C# D# E# F# G# A# B# C#. You can't put C# D# F F# G# A# C C#, because it is not diatonic!

8.0 - Finding Out What Chords Are in What Key

This lesson is all about finding out what chords fit into what key. In this lesson the author (SilentDeftone) tells you that finding the diatonic triads in each key will tell what chords are in what key. This is true, but I'm going to expand on "diatonic" here. Diatonic can also mean that a specific piece fits into one key exactly. Example, a song that uses the notes A F# G E C fits diatonically into the key of Em, or G major. Read through that lesson as it explains this section to a great extent, but since I actually have to do something, here is a list of universal formulas for chords and extensions. This is what you get if you go through that lesson all the way. In the key of C:
Cmaj7
Dm7
Em7
Fmaj7
G7
Am7
Bm7b5
And beyond...
Cmaj9
Dm9
Em7(b9)
Fmaj9
G9
Am9
Bm7(b5, b9)
Further:
Cmaj11
Dm11
Em11(b9)
Fmaj9(#11)
G11
Am11
Bm11(b5, b9)
And to 13ths!
Cmaj13
Dm13
Em11(b9, b13)
Fmaj13(#11)
G13
Am13
Bm11(b5, b9, b13)

9.0 - Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor, Melodic Minor Scales Introduction

These new scales are all minor scales. They sound different from the major scale that you already know in that they have a minor tonality. They sound darker and can be used in more of a rock context. The natural minor scale is the most commonly used in rock, etc. and is probably the easiest to play. Harmonic minor is my personal favourite scale and is rather different. It can sound classical, eastern, or whatever. Yngwie Malmsteen (Shredder. Check out some of his music) is even known to use this scale a lot. Melodic minor is the least common from what I've seen, but it is still awesome. It can be used in jazz, or even in place of the major scale, for a little dissonance.

9.1 - Natural Minor Scale

This scale is more commonly called the "minor scale" but I find it helpful to call it the natural minor scale, because somewhere in history way back, "minor" could mean any of the 3 minor scales here... or something like that. The formula for the minor scale is 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1. The formulas for scales are the same as chords as chords, in the way that they are compared to the major scale. If 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 is the major scale, without any alterations, then 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1 has a lowered 3rd (Every minor scale has a b3. Thats what makes it minor), sixth and seventh. So you can apply this formula to any key... I'll use C for example.
C major: C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

C minor: C D Eb F G Ab Bb C
Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1
See the pattern? Apply that to any key you want! In A, for example.
A major: A B C# D E F# G# A
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

A minor: A B C D E F G A 
Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1
Any major scale you apply that to will get you the minor scale (for that key). For you step loving people, here's the minor scale in steps.
W H W W H W W
In A:
A B C D E F G A
W H W W H W W
etc.

9.2 - Harmonic Minor Scale

This is my personal favourite scale. It has a classical vibe about it, and can sound very eastern. It all depends on how you use it. Remember, you don't use anything until you know all this! There is a specific section for applying these ideas to guitar! Here's your Harmonic minor formula: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 1. Not very different from the natural minor is it? Only the 7th is brought back up to a major seventh, from a minor one. The b6 - 7 is a very cool interval. It gives you a nice eastern vibe, and in the steps watch out! Applying it to C:
C major: C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

C Harm. Minor: C D Eb F G Ab B C
Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 1
By now, you're not completely new to theory, so you can apply it to any major scale you want, and do it for yourself. You learn much better when you see the results for yourself. For steps, I have to introduce a new step! It's the WH step. It's a whole step AND a half step. Or a whole half step!
Harmonic Minor: W H W W H WH H

C D Eb F G Ab B C
W H W W H WH H
Play around with that. See how you like it.

9.3.0 - Melodic Minor - Ascending

The melodic minor is really two scales. The reason - I don't know... I think I might have at one time. Another thing to do with ancient times, and the such. This is the ascending version. Next section (I've made them sub sections, if you notices I put an extra number for the table of contents :p) is the descending melodic minor. The melodic minor isn't always melodic. You can make it sound horrible, but it's at your own disposal. You melodic minor formula: 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 1. Very simple one here... Just lower the third.
C major : C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 

C Mel. Minor: C D Eb F G A B C
Intervals : 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 1
This scale is rather simple. And now on to the descending melodic minor! Here are your steps: W H W W W W H.

9.3.1 - Melodic Minor - Descending

I'll cut right to chase here. Formula: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1. Look familiar eh? Well, that's because it is. The descending Melodic minor is the same as the natural minor scale. This acts as a leading tone, just going down. Why this was done requires a brief lesson on the history of minor scales. Old musicians had the natural minor scale and it's b7 tone. Singers found this awkward to sing, so they raised it to a natural 7. This created the harmonic minor scale. However, the minor third interval between the b6 and 7 was awkward to sing as well, so they raised the b6 to 6 and created the melodic minor scale. However, when descending, the 6 did not pull strongly to the 5. They decided that when descending, the note should be lowered back down to b6. However, this created that awkward interval between 7 and b6 again, so they lowered the 7 to b7 as well, and that is the same pattern as the natural minor scale. Please do not refer to a descending natural minor lick as a melodic minor lick. In practice, modern music often used the ascending pattern for the melodic minor scale both ascending and descending.
In C:

C major: C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

C Desc. Mel. Minor: C D Eb F G Ab Bb C
Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1
Your step formula: W H W W H W W

9.4 - What Chords Do These Scales Go With?

It's always nice to know what goes with what, isn't it? Natural minor goes with some normal chords, but the melodic and harmonic minor fit into some different ones. Natural Minor: minor, m7, m9, m11, m11(b13). It fits well into minor chord progressions and works in almost any style of music. You'll find this scale mostly in metal, rock, and it fits over power chords in a rock/metal song. Ex. using each root's minor scale in a G5 D5 E5 A5 progression works in a rock scenario. Harmonic Minor: this can go with m/maj7 chords, because of the b3 and major 7th. This doesn't quite fit a lot of chords perfectly, but is still applicable in place where the minor scale would be used. If you use a E5 F5 G5 E5 progression (key of Am) you can change it to suit the (A) harmonic minor, by making it E5 F5 G#5 E5. Melodic Minor: Melodic Minor - pretty much the same as harmonic minor, it is a less dark alternative. You would not use it over a m/maj7b13 chord, due to the 6/b6 clash.

10.0 - Modes of the Major Scale Introduction

Modes are a quite a challenge for most people, from what I've seen. They really aren't that hard, and I'm going to do 2 different sections for these. One for intervals (my way) and one with steps (different way). The intervals will be from my lesson "Modes With Mode Dictionary", which as it says in the title, has a mode "dictionary". All the modes in for all the major scales. Choose which way (intervals or steps) you like best and go for that. I find steps hinder your ability to recall the formula right away... So you aren't saying, "Was it WWHWWWH or WHWWWHW?" while the intervals have different formulas for each, and will help you down the road when you want to find the modes of other scales, like the harmonic minor, or melodic minor.

10.1 - Using the Intervals

Here's how we go with the intervals. I of course recommend this method, but do what suits you better, and remember you can always change your mind and come back to the other way. A mode is just an alteration of a major scale. Here are the names of all 7 modes, and the formulas for them:
Ionian - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

Dorian - 1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7 1

Phrygian - 1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

Lydian - 1 2 3 #4 5 6 7 1

Mixolydian - 1 2 3 4 5 6 b7 1

Aeolian - 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

Locrian - 1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7 1
Wondering where those intervals came from? Well after you work them out, the notes correspond to the intervals, as the formulas suggest. Take Dorian mode. In C, it is C D Eb F G A Bb C. If you look at the intervals between the notes:
C D Eb F G A Bb C
1-2
1 - b3
1 - 4
1 - 5
etc. You remember how to get the scales, so you can use C as your example.
  • Ionian - C D E F G A B C. Ionian mode is also the major scale. There's one mode you know already! Pronounce (EYE-OWN-EE-IN)
  • Dorian - C D Eb F G A Bb C. Dorian mode is very good for jazz, and is a minor mode. Pronounce (DORE-EE-IN)
  • Phrygian - C Db Eb F G Ab Bb C. Phrygian is rather Spanish sounding and is a minor mode. Pronounce (FRIJ-EE-IN)
  • Lydian - C D E F# G A B C. This is the closest mode to the major scale, it is a major mode. Pronounce (LID-EE-IN)
  • Mixolydian - C D E F G A Bb C. This on is also close to the major scale, kind of bluesy, and is a major mode. Pronounce (MIX-O-LID-EE-IN)
  • Aeolian - C D Eb F G Ab Bb C. Also known as the minor scale (natural). Two modes you know! Pronounce (EH-O-LEE-IN)
  • Locrian - C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C. Very dark and evil sounding, this is a DIMINISHED scale. Pronounce (LOW-CREE-IN)

    10.2 - Using the Steps

    Here's how the steps work: See if you can find the pattern.
    W W H W W W H W W H W W W H W W H W W W H W W H W W W H 
    
    Ionian: W W H W W W H 
    Dorian: W H W W W H W 
    Phrygian: H W W W H W W
    Lydian: W W W H W W H
    Mixolydian: W W H W W H W
    Aeolian: W H W W H W W
    Locrian: H W W H W W W
    
    Those are your step formulas. Just take the first step and throw it on the end. The long one at the top is the major scale repeated. You can think of a mode as playing a scale starting on a different note.
    C D E F G A B C
    W W H W W W H
    
    C D Eb F G A Bb C
    W H W W W H W
    
    C Db Eb F G Ab Bb C
    H W W W H W W
    
    C D E F# G A B C
    W W W H W W H
    
    C D E F G A Bb C
    W W H W W H W
    
    C D Eb F G Ab Bb C
    W H W W H W W
    
    C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
    H W W H W W W
    

    10.3 - Using the Modes Over Chords

  • Ionian - Ionian mode is just the name for the major scale. It has no alterations made to it. Play this mode over Major chords, Maj7, Maj6.
  • Dorian - Dorian mode has a flattened third and seventh (b3 and b7) making it ideal for m7 chords. You can also use Dorian mode for m6 chords. Dorian mode is often used in jazz styles.
  • Phrygian - Phrygian mode has a lowered second, third, sixth, and seventh. Phrygian has a Spanish feel to it so you can play it over Spanish progressions or heavy metal/rock riffs with a b2.
  • Lydian - Lydian mode's only alteration is a raised fourth (#4) making it very close to the major scale. The #4 makes it a good chord to use for Maj7#11 chords, but can also be used over maj7 chords.
  • Mixolydian - The only alteration in Mixolydian mode is the lowered seventh (b7). This makes it perfect for dominant 7th chords. This mode can be used in blues, jazz or even country.
  • Aeolian - Aeolian mode, a.k.a. the minor scale has a b3, b6 and b7. (All minor scales have a b3). Aeolian mode works over minor chords, and can be used as a substitute for Dorian mode, by using it over m7 chords.
  • Locrian - Locrian mode has a b2, b3, b5, b6 and b7. Locrian mode is very dark sounding. It fits a m7b5 chord perfectly.
    |-----7-10--10-7------8-|-(8)--8------------8---------|-------8-10-----------|
    |---8------------8h10---|--------10-----------10------|-8--10------10-8s6--5-|
    |-9---------------------|-----------10-9-7-------10-9-|----------------------|
    |-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
    |-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
    |-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
    
    
    |---8-7-5---8-7---8-7-|---8-7-10b12----|
    |-6-------6-----6-----|-6--------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    
    
    |-10-8-7-10-8-7----------------------------------------------|
    |---------------10-8----10-8---------------------------------|
    |--------------------10------10-9-7----9-7-------------------|
    |-----------------------------------10-----10-9-7----9-7-----|
    |-------------------------------------------------10-----10--|
    |------------------------------------------------------------|
    
    
    |-----------------------------------------------7-8-10-8----|
    |------------------------------------------8-10-------------|
    |-----------------------------------7-9-10------------------|
    |----------------------------7-9-10-------------------------|
    |-8-7----8-7----------7-8-10--------------------------------|
    |-----10-----10-8-7-8---------------------------------------|
    
    That's built completely off the C major scale and triads, in the key of C. You can even repeat it!

    11.0 - Applying #1-9 on the Guitar Introduction

    This is the section where you apply all your new knowledge to the guitar. I'll put in everything that I feel needs to be applied. The ones being left out are: Circle Of Fifths, The meaning of "diatonic", and finding what chords are in what key. You're going to need your guitar for this section! All these examples will be in TAB form.

    11.1 - Applying What Intervals and Steps Are

    First, I'll do intervals. All TAB examples are in standard tuning.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-1--|
    
    In the key of E, E - F is a b2, or a minor second. All these interval examples are in E major.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-2--|
    
    E-F# is a 2, or major second interval.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-3--|
    
    E-G is a b3, or a minor third.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-4--|
    
    E-G# is a 3, or major third.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-5--|
    
    E-A is a 4, or major fourth.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-6--|
    
    E-Bb is a b5, or diminished fifth.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-7--|
    
    E-B is a 5, or a perfect fifth.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-8--|
    
    E-C is a #5, or an augmented fifth.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-9--|
    
    E-C# is a 6, or a major sixth.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-10-|
    
    E-D is a b7, or minor seventh.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-11-|
    
    E-D# is a 7, or major seventh.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-12-|
    
    E-E is unison, or an octave. Now for steps.
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-1--|
    
    E-F is a half step (H)
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-2--|
    
    E-F# is a whole step (W)
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |------|
    |-0-3--|
    
    E-G is a whole + half step (WH)

    11.2 - Applying Understanding the Chromatic Scale

    So you know your chromatic scale, and how it works, but just to drive it home, here's the chromatic scale in TAB:
    |-------------------------------|
    |-------------------------------|
    |-------------------------------|
    |-------------------------------|
    |-------------------------------|
    |-0-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12--|
    
    That's just one octave, starting on E, there is much more of it. Here it is played differently.
    |----------------------------|
    |----------------------------|
    |----------------------------|
    |---------------------0-1-2--|
    |-----------0-1-2-3-4--------|
    |-0-1-2-3-4------------------|
    
    By now, you should fully understand the chromatic scale.

    11.3 - Applying the Major Scale and Triads

    In this section I'm going to give you examples of the major scale, by TAB-ing it out in all the keys for you, and then examples of triads starting on strings 6, 5, 4 and 3. Here are your major scales:
    Ab (Ab Bb C Db Eb F G Ab):
    |-----------------------------4--|
    |-------------------------6-8----|
    |-------------------5-6-8--------|
    |-------------5-6-8--------------|
    |-------4-6-8--------------------|
    |-4-6-8--------------------------|
    
    A (A B C# D E F# G# A):
    |-----------------------------5--|
    |-------------------------7-9----|
    |-------------------6-7-9--------|
    |-------------6-7-9--------------|
    |-------5-7-9--------------------|
    |-5-7-9--------------------------|
    
    Bb (Bb C D Eb F G A Bb):
    |----------------------------------6--|
    |-----------------------------8-10----|
    |----------------------7-8-10---------|
    |---------------7-8-10----------------|
    |--------6-8-10-----------------------|
    |-6-8-10------------------------------|
    
    B (B C# D# E F# G# A# B):
    |----------------------------------7--|
    |-----------------------------9-11----|
    |----------------------8-9-11---------|
    |---------------8-9-11----------------|
    |--------7-9-11-----------------------|
    |-7-9-11------------------------------|
    
    C (C D E F G A B C):
    |---------------------------------------8--|
    |---------------------------------10-12----|
    |-------------------------9-10-12----------|
    |-----------------9-10-12------------------|
    |---------8-10-12--------------------------|
    |-8-10-12----------------------------------|
    
    Db (Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Db):
    |-----------------------------------------9--|
    |-----------------------------------11-13----|
    |--------------------------10-11-13----------|
    |-----------------10-11-13-------------------|
    |---------9-11-13----------------------------|
    |-9-11-13------------------------------------|
    
    D (D E F# G A B C# D):
    |-------------------------------------------10--|
    |-------------------------------------12-14-----|
    |----------------------------11-12-14-----------|
    |-------------------11-12-14--------------------|
    |----------10-12-14-----------------------------|
    |-10-12-14--------------------------------------|
    
    Eb (Eb F G Ab Bb C D Eb):
    |-------------------------------------------11--|
    |-------------------------------------13-15-----|
    |----------------------------12-13-15-----------|
    |-------------------12-13-15--------------------|
    |----------11-13-15-----------------------------|
    |-11-13-15--------------------------------------|
    
    E (E F# G# A B C# D# E):
    |-----------------------------0--|
    |-------------------------2-4----|
    |-------------------1-2-4--------|
    |-------------1-2-4--------------|
    |-------0-2-4--------------------|
    |-0-2-4--------------------------|
    
    F (F G A Bb C D E F):
    |-----------------------------1--|
    |-------------------------3-5----|
    |-------------------2-3-5--------|
    |-------------2-3-5--------------|
    |-------1-3-5--------------------|
    |-1-3-5--------------------------|
    
    Gb (Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F Gb):
    |-----------------------------2--|
    |-------------------------4-6----|
    |-------------------3-4-6--------|
    |-------------3-4-6--------------|
    |-------2-4-6--------------------|
    |-2-4-6--------------------------|
    
    G (G A B C D E F# G):
    |-----------------------------3--|
    |-------------------------5-7----|
    |-------------------4-5-7--------|
    |-------------4-5-7--------------|
    |-------3-5-7--------------------|
    |-3-5-7--------------------------|
    

    Triads:

    Major: R = Root T = Major Third F = Perfect Fifth
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    D|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
    D|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|-T-|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    Minor: R = Root T = Minor Third F = Perfect Fifth
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    D|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
    D|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    Augmented: R = Root T = Major Third F = Augmented Fifth
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    D|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
    D|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|-F-|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|-F-|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|-T-|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    Diminished: R = Root T = Minor Third F = Diminished Fifth
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    D|-|-F-|---|---|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    G|-|-F-|---|---|---|---|
    D|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
    G|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    e|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
    B|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
    G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
    D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    E|-|---|---|---|---|---|
    
    So there's you basic triads, and combining those major scales and triads, I'll make you a nice mini solo!
    |-----7-10--10-7------8-|-(8)--8------------8---------|-------8-10-----------|
    |---8------------8h10---|--------10-----------10------|-8--10------10-8s6--5-|
    |-9---------------------|-----------10-9-7-------10-9-|----------------------|
    |-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
    |-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
    |-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
    
    
    |---8-7-5---8-7---8-7-|---8-7-10b12----|
    |-6-------6-----6-----|-6--------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    |---------------------|----------------|
    
    
    |-10-8-7-10-8-7----------------------------------------------|
    |---------------10-8----10-8---------------------------------|
    |--------------------10------10-9-7----9-7-------------------|
    |-----------------------------------10-----10-9-7----9-7-----|
    |-------------------------------------------------10-----10--|
    |------------------------------------------------------------|
    
    
    |-----------------------------------------------7-8-10-8----|
    |------------------------------------------8-10-------------|
    |-----------------------------------7-9-10------------------|
    |----------------------------7-9-10-------------------------|
    |-8-7----8-7----------7-8-10--------------------------------|
    |-----10-----10-8-7-8---------------------------------------|
    
    That's built completely off the C major scale and triads, in the key of C. You can even repeat it!

    11.4 - Applying Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales

    This one will be broken down into three sections. One for Natural Minor, one for Harmonic Minor and one for Melodic Minor. And then I'll give you another mini solo!

    Natural Minor

    First off, I'll give you a box pattern. I'm not a huge fan of these but they are good for beginners. R = Root o = other note (2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7)
    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    B|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
    D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    
    From that you can find minor scales.
    Em                                    
    |-----------------------------0-2-3--|
    |-----------------------0-1-3--------|
    |-------------------0-2--------------|
    |-------------0-2-4------------------|
    |-------0-2-3------------------------|
    |-0-2-3------------------------------|
    Am
    |-----------------------------5-7-8--|
    |-----------------------5-6-8--------|
    |-------------------5-7--------------|
    |-------------5-7-9------------------|
    |-------5-7-8------------------------|
    |-5-7-8------------------------------|
    
    etc. Just follow the box pattern.

    Harmonic Minor

    I'll just do the same thing. Box pattern and tabs.
    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    B|-|-O-|-O-|---|---|-O-|
    G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
    D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    
    E Harmonic Minor
    |-----------------------------0-2-3--|
    |-----------------------0-1-4--------|
    |-------------------0-2--------------|
    |-------------1-2-4------------------|
    |-------0-2-3------------------------|
    |-0-2-3------------------------------|
    
    A Harmonic Minor
    |-----------------------------5-7-8--|
    |-----------------------5-6-9--------|
    |-------------------5-7--------------|
    |-------------6-7-9------------------|
    |-------5-7-8------------------------|
    |-5-7-8------------------------------|
    

    Melodic Minor


    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    B|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
    D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    
    E Melodic Minor
    |-----------------------------0-2-3--|
    |-----------------------0-2-4--------|
    |-------------------0-2--------------|
    |-------------1-2-4------------------|
    |-------0-2-4------------------------|
    |-0-2-3------------------------------|
    
    A Melodic Minor
    |-----------------------------5-7-8--|
    |-----------------------5-7-9--------|
    |-------------------5-7--------------|
    |-------------6-7-9------------------|
    |-------5-7-9------------------------|
    |-5-7-8------------------------------|
    
    Now for the mini solo. 4/4
    ||--12h13p12--------------------------------12h13-16h17p16h17p16h17p|
    ||o----------15p13p12-----------------12h13-------------------------|
    ||--------------------14p13-----13h14-------------------------------|
    ||--------------------------15--------------------------------------|
    ||o-----------------------------------------------------------------|
    ||------------------------------------------------------------------|
    
    |-16p13p12-------------12h13-16h17p16h17p16h17p16-13p12------------------------------|
    |----------13p12h13h15----------------------------------15p13------------------------|
    |-------------------------------------------------------------14p13------------------|
    |-------------------------------------------------------------------14p12----14p12---|
    |-------------------------------------------------------------------------14---------|
    |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    
    |---------------------------------------------12--17-16-17-13-17-16-----||
    |----------------------------13-------13-0-15--------------------------o||
    |-----------------------------------------------------------------------||
    |-12h14p10h12h14p10h12h14h15----14h15-----------------------------------||
    |----------------------------------------------------------------------o||
    |-----------------------------------------------------------------------||
    

    11.5 - Applying "The Modes of the Major Scale"

    Check out "Modes With Mode Dictionary", under scales for all the modes tabbed out. In this section I'll give you the box patterns for the modes so you can move them around. Ionian
    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    B|-|---|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    G|-|---|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|
    D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    
    Dorian
    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    B|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
    D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    
    Phrygian
    e|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    B|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
    D|-|-O-|---|-R-|-O-|---|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    E|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    
    Lydian
    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    B|-|---|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    G|-|---|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|
    D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|---|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    
    Mixolydian
    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    B|-|---|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    G|-|---|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|
    D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
    
    Aeolian
    e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    B|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
    D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
    A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    
    Locrian
    e|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    B|-|---|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    G|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
    D|-|-O-|---|-R-|-O-|---|
    A|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    E|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
    
    No mini solo for this one, I'd just be repeating myself.
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