Hopscotch Method. Part 2

author: NovemberRain273 date: 06/13/2006 category: guitar techniques
rating: 9.1 / votes: 65 
Table of Contents: 01. Intro 02. The Major & Minor Scales 03. The 7 Major Scale Modes 04. Hopscotch Modes 05. Method Alternative 06. Further Expansion 07. Conclusion

Intro

NOTE: This article is based on the video lesson created by Joe Cefalu, who gives a demonstration of his workout called 'Hopscotch,' exclusively for Shred Academy [website]. Alright, well are you familiar with the Hopscotch Method, which was previously introduced for the minor pentatonic scale? If you haven't, go ahead and look for it. It's not necessary, but preferable to be familiar with that lesson, because in this lesson, I'll be using the same technique except with something bigger, wider, and much more complex. Modes! Once you've mastered this technique with modes you're fingers will be flying around the neck and you'll sound even better than before! Along with covering modes and using them together, I'll be explaining another technique I have figured while soloing on my own, and that is how to incorporate the minor pentatonic scale with major scale modes, which boxes go with which modes, and how they all fit together on the fretboard. So enough chit-chat, let's get to the lesson!

The Major And Minor Scales

The major scale as we know it, is known as this:
|R|-|o|-|o|
|-|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|
|-|o|R|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|R|-|o|-|o|
The root note in the major scale repeats three times, which means it goes up two octaves from the note you started on. The minor scale looks like this:
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|-|o|o|-|
The minor scale, as we will see later, is actually a mode of the major scale in itself.

The 7 Major Scale Modes

You've probably heard the word 'mode' tons of times before, including in this lesson. If you're wondering what everyone's talking about when they say that, then let me clear it up for you. A mode of the major scale is kinda like a minor pentatonic box. Its a different shape of the major scale in different positions all over the neck. Each mode in the same key includes all the same notes, just in different octaves and positions. That's why we can utilize them in a continuous pattern, as I will show you later on. The major scale modes, in order, are called:
- Ionian
- Dorian
- Phrygian
- Lydian
- Mixolydian
- Aeolian
- Locrian
I'll be tabbing the scales below in the key of G major. The first mode, Ionian, is the major scale itself:
Ionian
|o|-|o|-|o|
|-|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|

E||------------------------------3-5-7-|
B||--------------------------5-7-------|
G||--------------------4-5-7-----------|
D||--------------4-5-7-----------------|
A||--------3-5-7-----------------------|
E||--3-5-7-----------------------------|

Dorian
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|

|------------------------------5-7-8-|
|------------------------5-7-8-------|
|--------------------5-7-------------|
|--------------5-7-9-----------------|
|--------5-7-9-----------------------|
|--5-7-8-----------------------------|


Phrygian
(it can sound kinda spanish over the right progression)
|o|o|-|o|
|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|o|
|o|-|o|o|
|o|o|-|o|

|----------------------------------7-8-10-|
|---------------------------7-8-10--------|
|-----------------------7-9---------------|
|----------------7-9-10-------------------|
|---------7-9-10--------------------------|
|--7-8-10---------------------------------|

Lydian
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|-|
|-|o|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|

|---------------------------------------8-10-12-|
|-------------------------------8-10-12---------|
|--------------------------9-11-----------------|
|------------------9-10-12----------------------|
|----------9-10-12------------------------------|
|--8-10-12--------------------------------------|

Mixolydian
(some people say that this mode sounds bluesy)
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|
|-|o|o|-|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|

|--------------------------------------------10-12-14-|
|-----------------------------------10-12-13----------|
|-----------------------------11-12-------------------|
|--------------------10-12-14-------------------------|
|-----------10-12-14----------------------------------|
|--10-12-14-------------------------------------------|

Aeolian
(this is the minor scale! As I said earlier, the minor
scale is in fact a mode of the major scale)
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|-|o|o|-|

|--------------------------------------------12-14-15-|
|-----------------------------------12-13-15----------|
|-----------------------------12-14-------------------|
|--------------------12-14-16-------------------------|
|-----------12-14-15----------------------------------|
|--12-14-15-------------------------------------------|

Locrian
(this mode can sound dark when used correctly)
|o|o|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|
|o|-|o|o|
|o|o|-|o|
|o|o|-|o|

|--------------------------------------------14-15-17-|
|--------------------------------------15-17----------|
|-----------------------------14-16-17----------------|
|--------------------14-16-17-------------------------|
|-----------14-15-17----------------------------------|
|--14-15-17-------------------------------------------|

Hopscotch Modes

Alright, now for the good stuff. When soloing, alot of people tend to get stuck using one mode, much like they do with the minor pentatonic scale. Here, I'm gonna show you how the modes fit together on the fretboard, and help you see the modes and one gigantic scale which covers the entire fretboard. When you stick the modes together, you'll get something which looks like this:
 I   D   P Ly  M   A   L I
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|-|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|
Letters represent the beginning of each mode (the modes overlap):
I  = Ionian
D  = Dorian
P  = Phrygian
Ly = Lydian
M  = Mixolydian
A  = Aeolian
L  = Locrian
As you can see, all modes are connected, starting at Ionian and ending at Locrian. After Locrian, it starts right back up at Ionian. Now what we wanna do is take the 6 strings of your guitar in pairs. E & A, A & D, D & G, G & B, B & E. 5 pairs. Now what we'll do is take the first pair, E & A, and play the part of Ionian on those strings, and then play the part of Dorian on those strings. So in the key of G major, it would look like this:
A|--------3-5-7-------5-7-9-|
E|--3-5-7-------5-7-8-------|
And we'll keep on doing that same thing with the rest of the pairs of strings. Eventually, when you put it all together you'll get:
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|
|-|-|o|-|o|o|-|
|-|o|o|-|o|-|-|
|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|

|--------------------------------------------------------------->
|--------------------------------------------------------------->
|--------------------------------------------------------4-5-7-->
|--------------------------------4-5-7-------5-7-9-4-5-7-------->
|--------3-5-7-------5-7-9-3-5-7-------5-7-9-------------------->
|--3-5-7-------5-7-8-------------------------------------------->

|------------------------------------3-5-7-------5-7-8--|
|------------------5-7-----5-7-8-5-7-------5-7-8--------|
|--------5-7-4-5-7-----5-7------------------------------|
|--5-7-9------------------------------------------------|
|-------------------------------------------------------|
|-------------------------------------------------------|
Now you see, we merged the first two modes into one big mode. Once you get to see modes like this on the neck, you'll be soloing much better and more complex. For the other modes, it goes like this:
Dorian and Phrygian
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|

|----------------------------------------------------------------->
|----------------------------------------------------------------->
|------------------------------------------------------------5-7-->
|----------------------------------5-7-9--------7-9-10-5-7-9------>
|--------5-7-9--------7-9-10-5-7-9-------7-9-10------------------->
|--5-7-8-------7-8-10--------------------------------------------->

|----------------------------------------5-7-8--------7-8-10--|
|-----------------5-7-8-----7-8-10-5-7-8-------7-8-10---------|
|---------7-9-5-7-------7-9-----------------------------------|
|--7-9-10-----------------------------------------------------|
|-------------------------------------------------------------|
|-------------------------------------------------------------|

Phrygian and Lydian
|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|o|-|o|-|o|

|-------------------------------------------------------------------------->
|-------------------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------------7-9-->
|---------------------------------------7-9-10---------9-10-12-7-9-10------>
|---------7-9-10---------9-10-12-7-9-10--------9-10-12--------------------->
|--7-8-10--------8-10-12--------------------------------------------------->

|----------------------------------------------7-8-10---------8-10-12--|
|-------------------7-8-10------8-10-12-7-8-10--------8-10-12----------|
|----------9-11-7-9--------9-11----------------------------------------|
|--9-10-12-------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|

Lydian and Mixolydian
|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|
|-|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|

|------------------------------------------------------------>
|------------------------------------------------------------>
|------------------------------------------------------------>
|-------------------------------------------9-10-12---------->
|---------9-10-12----------10-12-14-9-10-12---------10-12-14->
|-8-10-12---------10-12-14----------------------------------->

|---------------------------------------------------------->
|--------------------------------------------8-10-12------->
|------------------9-11-----------11-12-9-11---------11-12->
|-10-12-14-9-10-12-------10-12-14-------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------->

|------------------8-10-12----------10-12-14-|
|-10-12-13-8-10-12---------10-12-13----------|
|--------------------------------------------|
|--------------------------------------------|
|--------------------------------------------|
|--------------------------------------------|

Mixolydian and Aeolian
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|-|
|-|o|o|-|o|-|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|-|

|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|----------------------------------------------10-12-14---------->
|----------10-12-14----------12-14-15-10-12-14----------12-14-15->
|-10-12-14----------12-14-15------------------------------------->

|--------------------------------------------------------------->
|------------------------------------------------10-12-13------->
|-------------------11---12----------12-14-11-12----------12-14->
|-12-14-16-10-12-14---------12-14-16---------------------------->
|--------------------------------------------------------------->
|--------------------------------------------------------------->

|-------------------10-12-14----------12-14-15-|
|-12-13-15-10-12-13----------12-13-15----------|
|----------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------|

Aeolian and Locrian
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|
|o|-|o|-|o|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|

|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|----------------------------------------------12-14-16---------->
|----------12-14-15----------14-15-17-12-14-15----------14-15-17->
|-12-14-15----------14-15-17------------------------------------->

|------------------------------------------------------------------>
|-------------------------------------------------12-13-15--------->
|-------------------12-14----------14-16-17-12-14----------14-16-17>
|-14-16-17-12-14-16-------14-16-17--------------------------------->
|------------------------------------------------------------------>
|------------------------------------------------------------------>

|-----------------12-14-15-------14-15-17-|
|--15-17-12-13-15----------15-17----------|
|-----------------------------------------|
|-----------------------------------------|
|-----------------------------------------|
|-----------------------------------------|

Locrian and Ionian
|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|o|
|o|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|o|-|o|-|o|

|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|----------------------------------------------14-16-17---------->
|----------14-15-17----------15-17-19-14-15-17----------15-17-19->
|-14-15-17----------15-17-19------------------------------------->

|-------------------------------------------------------------> 
|-------------------------------------------------------15-17-> 
|-------------------14-16-17----------16-17-19-14-16-17-------> 
|-16-17-19-14-16-17----------16-17-19-------------------------> 
|-------------------------------------------------------------> 
|------------------------------------------------------------->

|----------------------14-15-17-------15-17-19-|
|----------17-19-15-17----------17-19----------|
|-16-17-19-------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------|
You have to memorize these positions well for them to be effective.

Method Alternative

You don't have to go through the whole scale to improv though. Another way to overcome the barriers between the modes is to take 1 pair of strings, and go through all the modes on those two strings. So lets say, E & A. You would basically play this:
E & A
E|---------------------------------------------------------------->
B|---------------------------------------------------------------->
G|---------------------------------------------------------------->
D|---------------------------------------------------------------->
A|-------3-5-7-------5-7-9--------7-9-10---------9-10-12---------->
E|-3-5-7-------5-7-8-------7-8-10--------8-10-12---------10-12-14->

E|----------------------------------------------------------------|
B|----------------------------------------------------------------|
G|----------------------------------------------------------------|
D|----------------------------------------------------------------|
A|-10-12-14----------12-14-15----------14-15-17----------15-17-19-|
E|----------12-14-15----------14-15-17----------15-17-19----------|

A & D:
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|-------4-5-7-------5-7-9--------7-9-10---------9-10-12---------->
|-3-5-7-------5-7-9-------7-9-10--------9-10-12---------10-12-14->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->

|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|-10-12-14----------12-14-16----------14-16-17----------16-17-19-|
|----------12-14-15----------14-15-17----------15-17-19----------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|

D & G:
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|-------4-5-7-------5-7-9--------7-9-11---------9-11-12---------->
|-4-5-7-------5-7-9-------7-9-10--------9-10-12---------10-12-14->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->

|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|-11-12-14----------12-14-16----------14-16-17----------16-17-19-|
|----------12-14-16----------14-16-17----------16-17-19----------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|

G & B:
|-------------------------------------------------------->
|-------5-7-------7-8--------8-10---------10-12---------->
|-4-5-7-----5-7-9-----7-9-11------9-11-12-------11-12-14->
|-------------------------------------------------------->
|-------------------------------------------------------->
|-------------------------------------------------------->

|----------------------------------------------------|
|-12-13----------13-15----------15-17----------17-19-|
|-------12-14-16-------14-16-17-------16-17-19-------|
|----------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------|

B & E:
|-------3-5-7-------5-7-8--------7-8-10---------8-10-12---------->
|-3-5-7-------5-7-8-------7-8-10--------8-10-12---------10-12-13->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->
|---------------------------------------------------------------->

|-10-12-14----------12-14-15----------14-15-17----------15-17-19-|
|----------12-13-15----------13-15-17----------15-17-19----------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|

Further Expansion

One thing I've found out while soloing is that you can use the minor pentatonic and the major scale modes at the same time. I mean you could start soloing with the minor scale (aeolian) for instance and then start some licks from the minor pentatonic. Different pentatonic box shapes work with different modes. I've figured out which modes work with what. Before I can reveal that to you however, lets have a minor review at the minor pentatonic box shapes:
Fig. 1
|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|-|o|

Fig. 2
|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|

Fig. 3
|-|o|-|o|-|
|-|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|-|o|-|
|-|o|-|o|-|
|-|o|-|o|-|
|-|o|-|o|-|

Fig. 4
|o|-|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|-|o|

Fig. 5
|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|
|-|o|-|o|
Refreshed? Good. Now for the list:
Mode      |Figure/shape it works with
---------------------------------------------------------
Ionian    |3
Dorian    |3 with the first half, 4 with the second half
Phrygian  |4
Lydian    |5
Mixolydian|5 with the first half, 1 with the second half
Aeolian   |1
Locrian   |2
What I mean is by what goes with what is. For instance. If you were playing this:
 3 4 5 6 7  <--- These are the fret numbers.
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|-|
|o|-|o|-|o|
|o|-|o|o|-|
|o|-|o|o|-|
Then at the same time, you could play this:
 3 4 5 6 
|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|-|o|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|o|-|
|o|-|-|o|
You can combine your newly aqcuired knowledge of modes and the stuff from the lesson on minor pentatonics, and put em together to figure out exactly how each one fits together. Most of em are straightforward, the only ones that might give you trouble are Ionian and Mixolydian. There is no set minor box for them since they are inbetween modes. Look at the modes next to them and thats how you'll know what to use. Carlos Santana - Black Magic Woman A good example of a lick which combines the minor pentatonic with the Aeolian mode is Black Magic Woman by Carlos Santana. Here's a sample lick:
                                 H          E   E    E  E   
E|----------------------------|----------------------------|
B|-15---13---15--13p--10--13b-|--L----------L--13p--10-----|
G|----------------------------|----------------------------|
D|----------------------------|----------------------------|
A|----------------------------|----------------------------|
E|----------------------------|----------------------------|

    Q.       S  S  S  S S  S  S  S     Q.     E  Q    E  E  
E|----------10----------------------|----------------------|
B|-13b---------13-10----------------|----------------------|
G|-------------------12---14-12-10S-|--9------L--L----L----|
D|----------------------------------|----------------------|
A|----------------------------------|----------------------|
E|----------------------------------|----------------------|

                                      |----3----|   |-------3-------|
   E    E   E   E   E    E  S  E      E    E    E   Q       Q       Q   
E|-----------------12h--13----12--|--13p--12p--10----------------------|
B|---------10--13-----------------|----------------13br----13br----10--|
G|-9S--10-------------------------|------------------------------------|
D|--------------------------------|------------------------------------|
A|--------------------------------|------------------------------------|
E|--------------------------------|------------------------------------|

                                                 |---3---|   |---3---|
    Q.       S  S  E  E   E       E  S  S Q    E   E   E   E   E   E    
E|----------10-----------------|--------------------------10--12--13b--|
B|-13b---------13-10-----------|----------------------11---------------|
G|-----------------------12br--|--L--L-10---------12-------------------|
D|-----------------------------|---------------------------------------|
A|-----------------------------|---------------------------------------|
E|-----------------------------|---------------------------------------|

                               |---3---|
    Q    E  S  S  H            E   E   E   H        Q  
E|--L---------15b-L--------|--15--13------13----------|
B|-------------------------|----------15--------------|
G|-------------------------|--------------------------|
D|-------------------------|--------------------------|
A|-------------------------|--------------------------|
E|-------------------------|--------------------------|

Duration Legend
---------------
W - whole
H - half
Q - quarter
E - 8th
S - 16th
T - 32nd
X - 64th
. - note dotted
|-n-|  - n-tuplets


Tablature Legend
----------------
L - tied note
h - hammer on
p - pull off
b - bend
br - bendRelease
S - shift slide
s - legato slide
/ -  slide into from below or out of upwards
\ -  slide into from above or out of downwards
~ - vibrato
W - wide vibrato

Conclusion

I didn't expect to write that much. Well ok, I did. Modes are a complex subject. But I hope this helped you understand them a little bit better. Now go practice, and get soloing!
More NovemberRain273 lessons:
+ Hopscotch Method. Part 1 Guitar Techniques 06/06/2006
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