The 'Church Modes' are scales that are generally used to write songs or simply play around with. The names of each of the 7 scales that I am about to try to explain to you and teach you are: Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian. The Ionian and Aeolian are also the Major and minor scales, respectively. The origins of the 'Church Modes' are from various ancient civilizations like: Aeolia (Aeolian mode), Ionia (Ionian mode), Doris (Dorian mode).
A mode can simply be thought of as a set of 7 notes. Each mode is an inversion -starts and ends on a different note of the 7 notes- of the Ionian mode (Ionian scale). We will use the most common major key to learn these modes in. the C major mode is the most common key to learn the modes in.
C major- C, D, E, F, G, A, B, and C (octave)
The inversions of this key -set of notes- make up the modes. For example the modes start with the key (Ionian mode or Major scale) and just rotate which note they start and end on, like this:
C major (Ionian mode)- C, D, E, F, G, A, B, and C (octave)
D Dorian (second mode)- D, E, F, G, A, B, C, and D (octave)
E Phrygian (third mode)- E, F, G, A, B, C, D, and E (octave)
F Lydian (fourth mode)- F, G, A, B, C, D, E, and F (octave)
G Mixolydian (fifth mode)- G, A, B, C, D, E, F, and G (octave)
A minor (Aeolian mode)- A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and A (octave)
B Locrian (seventh mode)- B, C, D, E, F, G, A, and B (octave)
Here are the scales tabbed out:
C Ionian (Major) mode:
It is very important that you play the "-10-12-14-" pattern using your index, middle, and pinky fingers: index for 10, middle for 12, and pinky for 14. The use of these fingers allow you to play scales in a more efficient way. This arrangement of your fingers also increases your ability to stretch your fingers further apart which can be a vital asset to becoming a "guitar god".
E Phrygian mode:
B Locrian mode can also be played at the 19th fret (the octave of the 7th fret)
As you can see each mode starts on the second note of the previous mode, if you think of them in order. Each scale is like a link in a chain; each link is connected to two other links and all 7 links make one big circle of links (scales). Therefore all 7 scales are connected to each other.
The reason each of these 7 scales are called modes is very simple. When you see Carlos Santana playing Europa you can tell he is playing the intro of the song using the Mixolydian mode (using the way I tabbed the scales). In reality Carlos Santana is using the G Phrygian mode. The reason he is using the Phrygian mode and not the Mixolydian mode is simply because you determine the mode you are in by the note in the key that you emphasize. Carlos Santana emphasizes the Phrygian note G in the key of D# major. Emphasizing a particular note can cause the sound of a scale to sound certain ways. Carlos makes his song Europa sound bluesy with a Spanish flavor sound to it because of emphasizing the Phrygian note in the key he chose to play in.
I hope this helps. If you have any questions or complaints please contact me through my email.