The more you know, the better. When I began I had troubles understanding simple things, well they are simple in hindsight. I will try to define and explain words that you will see a lot of if you want to further your playing. Now try and stay awake while reading this.
Accidentals - Flats, double flats, naturals, sharps, and double sharps.
Aeolean - A seven-note scale. (e.g. W H W W H W W, also known as the Natural Minor Scale)
Arpeggio - The sounding of the tones of a chord in rapid succession rather than simultaneously. (A broke chord)
Augmented - Refering to either an interval that is one-half step, or a semitone, larger than a perfect or a major interval. (Like a Caug Chord, remember augment means to make larger)
Barre - The use of your index finger to hold down more than one string at one fret in a single chord. (e.g. The F# Barre Chord)
Circle Of Fifths - A musical tool showing the relativity between keys.
Chord - A chord is a set of three or more pitches that sound at the same time. (No need to explain)
Chromatic - Refering to notes that are altered by the use of an accidental. (Notes that are one-half step apart)
Diatonic - Of or using only the seven tones of a standard scale without chromatic alterations. (Music that remains within the confines of a single key)
Diminished - Refering to either an interval that is one-half step less than a perfect or a minor interval. (D diminished chord contains D, F, and Ab.)
Dominant - The fifth scale degree. (Built on the fifth scale degree (V))
Enharmonic - The relationship between two pitch classes that represent the same note. (i.e. G# and Ab)
Harmonics - Any of a series of musical tones whose frequencies are integral multiples of the frequency of a fundamental tone. (Barely press on a string and sound the string it will give it a "thud" sound and thats a common harmonic)
Interval - The distance between two pitches. (i.e. B is a half step away from C)
Inversion - The term used to specify which chord tone is the lowest. (Of chords)
Ionian - A seven-note scale. (e.g. W W H W W W H, also known as the Major Scale)
Legato - Smooth and connected, in a flowing manner. (As in a 'Legato slide')
Key - Refers to the tonic center of musical passage that adhears to a single mode. (The Key of C,
Major - Chord, consisting of a major third and a perfect fifth. (D major chord contains D, F#, and A.)
Minor - Chord, a minor third, and then a major thirds, which still adds up to a perfect fifth.
Mode - A seven-note scale spanning an entire octave. (There are seven common modes)
Modulate - To change keys.
Octave - The relationship between two pitches where one has a frequency of 2 times the other. (When sounded together they sound the same)
Pentatonic - Of or using only five tones, usually the first, second, third, fifth, and sixth tones of a diatonic scale. (e.g. The Am Pentatonic Scale)
Rhythm - A general term used to refer to the position of musical events in time. (Self-explantory)
Resolve - A musical progression which brings an ending to part of a piece.
Root - The note a chord is built on. (G is the root for the G Chord)
Scale - An ordered set of pitches that cover a range of one octave. (e.g. The Major Scale)
Seventh - Chord, a series of stacked thirds forming a four-note chord.
Suspended - Chord, containing either the root, second, and fifth (sus2), or the root, fourth, and fifth (sus4).
Tonal - Hierarchy of pitches which functionally support or reference one pitch as the focal point or primary center, called the tonic.
Tonic - The primary pitch which functions as the focal point or primary center of a key in tonal music. (Also known as an octave)
Triad - A chord consisting of three pitch classes that form two stacked thirds. (Is the basis of tonal harmony)
Vibrato - A tremulous or pulsating effect produced by rapid variations in pitch. (Hammering-on the string when the note has been sounded)
Whole Step - An interval equal to two half-steps.