Can anyone explain to me chord/scale formulas? Or what the roman numerals represent, and how to use them.

Thanks
Types of shorthand notation for scale formulas and chord progressions
One of the most common ways to indicate a scale formula is to use numbers in conjunction with flats and sharps.
The default scale formula is identical to the major scale:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
This indicates that all intervals are major or perfect, respectively.
If we wanted to write a minor (natural) scale formula, we would simply make any changes to the major scale.
The minor scale differs from the major scale in the fact that it has a:
Minor third instead of a Major third.
Minor sixth instead of a Major sixth.
Minor seventh instead of a Major seventh.
We simply “flatten” the said degrees, our minor scale is therefore:
1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7

One of the most common ways to indicate a chord progression is to use roman numerals.
I - Tonic
II - Supertonic
III - Mediant
IV - Subdominant
V – Dominant
VI - Submediant

When these are written using upper case numerals (I, II, III, etc) the chord is major.
When they are written using lower case numerals (i, ii, iii, etc) the chord is minor.
Diminished are written using lower case numerals with a small circle after it.
Augmented are written using upper case numerals with a plus sign.
If one wants to indicate a 7th chord, the extension of a chord is simply written (V7, IMaj7).
The same practice is used for other chord extentions.

If an accidental has to be used, it is placed before the roman numeral to indicated a certain root note is flatted or sharpened.
Write this chord progression in the key of G Major.

I – vi – IV – V7

Transposing means to take a piece of music and put it into a different key. Raising or lowering all of the notes and chords by the same interval.

If we wanted to transpose this chord progression from G Major to C Major, we would simply write the chord progression out using the roman numeral system, and then apply the formula to C Major.

G - I
Em – vi
C - IV
D7 – V

Apply these roman numerals to the diatonic chords of C Major.
Now our chord progression is:
C – Am – F – G7

(Correct me if I'm wrong, this is something I typed up for a teacher quite a while ago(I'm at intern).)
The Major Scale in the Key of C is as follows...

C D E F G A B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14

The numbers underneath are the "degrees" in that scale, a universal way to point out specific notes in scales no matter the key.

The Triad Chord Scale of Harmony is as follows...

C Major - CEG I First Chord
D minor - DFA ii Second
E minor - EGB iii Third
F Major - FAC IV Fourth
G Major - GBD V Fifth
A Minor - ACE vi Sixth
B Dimished - BDF vii dim Seventh

So a major chord is made up of a 1 3 5. For example C Major.

C is the root or 1.
E is the 3rd.
G is the 5th.

Minor chords are made up of 1 3b 5. So the "b" next to the 3 means it is lowered by a half step. So lets look at C Minor...

C is the root or 1
Eb is the flat 3rd, since it is a half step lower than E.
G is the 5th.

Diminished chords are made up of 1 3b 5b. C diminished looks like this...

C is the root or 1.
Eb is the flat 3rd.
Gb is the flat 5th.

Too basic or more explaining?
Duke Ellington - If it sounds good, it is good.
Quote by Anything Goes
The Major Scale in the Key of C is as follows...

C D E F G A B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14

The numbers underneath are the "degrees" in that scale, a universal way to point out specific notes in scales no matter the key.

The Triad Chord Scale of Harmony is as follows...

C Major - CEG I First Chord
D minor - DFA ii Second
E minor - EGB iii Third
F Major - FAC IV Fourth
G Major - GBD V Fifth
A Minor - ACE vi Sixth
B Dimished - BDF vii dim Seventh

So a major chord is made up of a 1 3 5. For example C Major.

C is the root or 1.
E is the 3rd.
G is the 5th.

Minor chords are made up of 1 3b 5. So the "b" next to the 3 means it is lowered by a half step. So lets look at C Minor...

C is the root or 1
Eb is the flat 3rd, since it is a half step lower than E.
G is the 5th.

Diminished chords are made up of 1 3b 5b. C diminished looks like this...

C is the root or 1.
Eb is the flat 3rd.
Gb is the flat 5th.

Too basic or more explaining?

i dont understand.......

No im just kidding! lol good explanation

i would talk to him about natural minors and majors and how to build a major and minor scales

but this is enough for him to work on first

lol now hes pretty much at the door with Diatonic