Okay I've been playing for about 10 months now. I've got most the simple chords down and now mostly play with my singing. I "know" the finger for barr chords and such.

What I don't know is where the roots or the notes are on the strings in the chord.

I want to hit that next level of playing where instead of memorizing chords positions, I want to be able figure out the positioning based music theory (whole whole half).

If I'm singing a song with a I IV V iv progression, I want to know what other chords or other sounds maybe a jazz feel. How do I add in the folk feel.

If I'm just picking for background sound and I know the progression, how do I learn the notes to play instead of just hitting chords.

What drills, exercise, or things I can do to get myself to the next level of playing?