what are the properties and features (for the guitar) of the different kinds of woods for the fret board, like rosewood and mahogany?

Fretboards are generally either rosewood, maple or ebony.

Maple is snappy, with a lot of treble. Rosewood is more mellow, and I haven't had a guitar with ebony; so I don't know about that.
neck woods make only a very small difference to the guitars sound as there is very little wood to actually resonate thus little colouring of the sound. the neck on almost all guitars is maple - so having a maple fretboard allows you to have a one piece.

in terms of sound it goes maple -> rosewood -> ebony with maple being the brightest, rosewood being a middle ground and ebony being thick and heavy.

in all honesty the biggest difference it'll make to your guitar is cosmetic - it takes a very very good ear to hear the differences. the way you attack the strings etc. is far more vital so go for what looks good
The only 6 words that can make you a better guitarist:

Learn theory
Practice better
Practice more
^Nope, ebony is the brightest, then maple and lastly rosewood.

Alot of woods make good fretboard woods. The tone of the fretboard is probably none existant to be honest.