#1
Could someone explain to me what this is called exactly and how to play this exactly??? I believe I can play it pretty well, but is there a certain technique to not hit the center string while strumming?


C#|-------------------------------|
G#|-------------------------------|
E |--16---16-16-16-16-16----|
B |--------------------------------|
F#|-14---14-14-14-14-14----|
C#|-------------------------------|

Another example

E]-------------------------------------- -----------------------
B]-------------------------------------- -----------------------
G]-14------14------14-14------14-----14- 12---------
D]-------------------------------------- -----------------------
A.]-12------12------12-12------12-----12 -10---------
D]-------------------------------------- -----------------------
#3
Those are octaves. Mute the middle string with your index finger (or your middle if you're lazy).
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#5
just have the finger that hits the lower string lay gently against the middle so it cancels it out.
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#6
Place your index finger so it blocks the middle string making it not play anything (except for a thump-ish sound) while still playing the 14 (referring to the first example). It takes awhile but its worth. There are other techniques to re insure that the string won't sound, but you should be fine.

edit: ^he said what I was getting at, just simpler
#7
I play them with my Index finger on the 5th string, touching the 4th to mute it, and my ring or middle on the next fretted string.
#9
Quote by -Lateralus-
Could someone explain to me what this is called exactly and how to play this exactly??? I believe I can play it pretty well, but is there a certain technique to not hit the center string while strumming?



Those are octaves - the same note 12 semitones apart. In your first example, the both notes are As. In the second position shown, both are Gs.
The technique I use is to positon your fingers as if you are playing the power chord.

E]----------------------------------------------------------
B]----------------------------------------------------------
G]-14------14------14-14------14-----14- 12---------
D]-14------14------14-14------14-----14- 12---------
A]-12------12------12-12------12-----12 -10---------
D]----------------------------------------------------------

but deaden the middle string by just resting your finger on the string rather than fretting the note.
Like this (The Xs are your finger resting on the string deadening it):
E]----------------------------------------------------------
B]----------------------------------------------------------
G]-14------14------14-14------14-----14- 12---------
D]--x--------x--------x---x--------x------x----x---------
A]-12------12------12-12------12-----12 -10---------
D]----------------------------------------------------------

Now just strum all three strings like you were playing the full chord.

Hope this helps.