#1
I would really like to know ways to practice scales with a metronome that'll increase overall technique and improvisation, and exercises that I will actually be able to apply to any scales I'm playing, and change around.

Maybe practising 'patterns' and transposing them to fit different scales, and practising them, might be what I'm looking? I'm just really unsure about all these exercises I see, as they seem like they'd only improve my ability at playing that one thing. What's the point of being able to play something at 300bpm if it can't be incorporated into improvisation and general playing?

Sorry if I've been unclear or have insulted people who swear by their exercises, if that's the case, tell me why and what I should be practising and how it'll help and how I can use it! I would just really like some advice
#2
"I would really like to know ways to practice scales with a metronome that'll increase overall technique and improvisation, and exercises that I will actually be able to apply to any scales I'm playing, and change around."

To improve improvisation, use the metronome to maintain a clear beat while playing. For technique, use the metronome and scalar exercises and focus on obtaining the sound YOU want, while playing cleanly, with proper muting, finger placement, etc.

"Maybe practising 'patterns' and transposing them to fit different scales, and practising them, might be what I'm looking?"

You don't need a metronome for this. Do it on your own time and pace. For really good practice, improv in a certain scale or pattern until you get the feel of it, then move the position up or down the fretboard. Also remember, a scale pattern doesn't have to start on the 6th string. Play it on the 5th or 4th. Experimentation is the key.

"I'm just really unsure about all these exercises I see, as they seem like they'd only improve my ability at playing that one thing."

It's more about combining the techniques these exercises emphasize into your own playing. The combination of the techniques you use while playing is what creates your style.

"What's the point of being able to play something at 300bpm if it can't be incorporated into improvisation and general playing?"

You're right, there is no point. Use the exercises to find your limitations and then break them through improvisation.
Ibanez RG350MDX
Dunlop Jazz IIIs
DR Tite-fits(Only because High-Beams sell too fast for me to buy them)
Carvin X212B
#3
Regarding scales, I find it very helpful to make my licks/exercises travel all over the neck from top to bottom both lengthwise and widthwise (and backwards). Make sure you practice sequences and larger interval jumps too.
#4
For practice you should spend some time exploring "melodic patterns." If you want to know more about it you can find info by googling "melodic patterns," "jazz patterns," "melodic cells," "jazz cells," and similar topics. One example playing a backing track with a major chord progression and playing the 1,2,3,5 degrees of the chord over each chord. Mix it up and play 2,3,5,1 etc. I think there are about 24 variations on those 4 notes alone and more if you play inversions (playing the 1 an octave higher for instance). This exercise will open up your ear to using a scale over a chord progression. There are an infinite number of ways you can vary this exercise.
#5
i sometimes just run up and down the scales with a metronome.. it helps i cant tell you how or why. seems like it makes my improv flow more after i just got done with a metronome. but i also practice legato and slides and stuff, just fooling around in the scale...i thought more ppl practiced scales with a metronome but i guess not O_o
#6
Just one more note on my post above. I got this idea from Jerry Bergonzi's book called Melodic Structures. In the book he suggests you start out playing 1,2,4,5 over major and dominant chords, and 1, b3, 4, 5 over minor chords. In the case of diminished you'd use 1, b3, 4, b5, and you would adjust for any other alterations b5, b9, #11 etc..