#3
Not exactly sure what you're asking...

but the ohms on the cab should match the ohms on the head. You can do what is called a safe mismatch...where the ohms on the cab are higher (i.e. using an 8-ohm head to power a 16-ohm cabinet) Note: this isn't safe on tube heads.

Also, standard speaker cables are what you use to connect the head to the cab.
#4
speaker cables are generally 2 wires side by side, wire gauges are typically 14 -18 AWG (America Wire Gauge) stranded wire with 1/4" mono Phone Jacks on each end.
Moving on.....