What are some good techniques for learning the notes of the fretboard? I want to be able to do it so that I can play all the keys of the major scale, and eventually be able to use that to play all the other scales with relative ease. Right now I can only play in the key of C Major, because I don't know the fretboard well enough. I know all the notes but it takes me a second or two to recall them. I want it to be instant when I look or think of the fret.
Well, start off with the fret markers... Not exactly the most perfect way because some guitars won't have them, but it's a start. Also, learn the octave shapes.
Learn the whole notes (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) on each string, starting with the low E and the A strings. Also, learning the shapes INSIDE the scales helps immensely. I find it easier to play in different keys/modes by focusing on the patterns of the notes rather than the notes themselves.
Quote by YA89
Learning to read sheet music is the best way in my opinion.


The best way to learn anything is to put it into practice. When you read music, your associating what your reading, with where it is on the neck, as well as what it sounds like.

So while some of the shortcuts my serve as a good 1st exposure, reading music can get you to the point where you really know the fret-board. Of-course this takes time, and you need to do it regularly.
shred is gaudy music
Quote by Hanrahan
Learn the whole notes (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) on each string,

Those are the natural notes note the whole notes. Whole notes refers to length, not pitch.
Quote by Xnipes
Where can I read about octave shapes and things like that?
In my opinion the best way is to learn the fretboard, and then octaves will simply be obvious to you.
Only play what you hear. If you don’t hear anything, don’t play anything.
-Chick Corea