Okay, so I'm changing the string gauge on my Les Paul... They're going from 10-46s (regular) to 10-52s (heavy bottom skinny top). Am I going to have to mess with the nut or intonation or anything like that? or would i just be able to switch strings and play without any changing or fixing?

oh and i play in Standard and Drop D..

i doubt there will be any problems, i did this when i started out. i even used the "not even slinkies" in stanard and dropped d you wont have any problem at all. synyster gates of avenged sevenfold uses skinnytopheavybottoms. you definitely wont have to mess with the nut or the bridge.
This is a signature. Yeah.
You might have to tweak the trussrod a touch. If this is new to you just google it, there's probably a dozen sites with pictures out there.
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it's doubtful you'll need to file your nut.

double check your intonation just to be safe

do NOT touch your truss rod unless you see warning signs. if you were putting on a set of baritone strings, then maybe I could see it. the change you're making isn't nearly that drastic.