#1
I can't seem to find any lessons on it on UG, I must be looking in the wrong place or something, as it's pretty basic stuff, you'd have thought there was something about it somewhere?
#3
CAGED Chord System. I can find small questions about it using the search bar, but theres no mention on it as a cohesive whole on the forums, or in the columns section of UG
#5
my understanding of the caged system is simply a way to play one chord, using 5 different chord shapes.

So a C chord can be played in its regular C-shape in open position.
it can be played as an A-Shaped barre, on the 3rd fret of the 5th string.
it can be played as a G-Shaped barre [although this is an extremely rare chord shape]
it can be played with an E shape up at the 8th fret
and a D shape with a root on the 10th fret of the 4th string.

these 5 different shapes spell out the word C-A-G-E-D

It will help you greatly if you know all the note names on strings 6, 5 and 4, as the root notes will usually lie here.
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#6
Quote by flea's trumpet
my understanding of the caged system is simply a way to play one chord, using 5 different chord shapes.

So a C chord can be played in its regular C-shape in open position.
it can be played as an A-Shaped barre, on the 3rd fret of the 5th string.
it can be played as a G-Shaped barre [although this is an extremely rare chord shape]
it can be played with an E shape up at the 8th fret
and a D shape with a root on the 10th fret of the 4th string.

these 5 different shapes spell out the word C-A-G-E-D

It will help you greatly if you know all the note names on strings 6, 5 and 4, as the root notes will usually lie here.

^it will also help with scales and the different positions and how they can relate to chords. helps if you want to embelish chords (add notes) if you know where the scale is in relation to the chord voicing.