So I've bought a book and have just started teaching myself music theory. The book is Tonal Harmony by Stefan Kostka. It seams really well written and thought out so far, but it has exercises where you are supposed to fill in the major scales. For example it lists D♭ Major as (D♭,E♭,F,G♭,A♭,B♭,C, D) is that correct, or is it (D♭,E♭,F,G♭,A♭,B♭,C, D♭
where the D at the 8th position is flat as well.

If I'm right I can ignore it, but if I'm wrong then I need to go back because I missed something along the way.
The 8th note should be a perfect octave up from the root note of the scale. So in this case, it should be a D♭. Is it written out in one measure of music? If it is, then the flat stays in effect for the rest of that measure. This is assuming it is using accidentals.
the octave is also flat. One way to think of it is to think of scales as having 7 notes. The octave is a repeat of the root.
That is the way I understood it, as a scale having only 7 notes, and the eighth repeating.

Here is the answer page that confused me, It's the first section where they have you fill in the scales from memory for practice.

Tonal Harmony page 602
Quote by sexiewasd
That is the way I understood it, as a scale having only 7 notes, and the eighth repeating.

Here is the answer page that confused me, It's the first section where they have you fill in the scales from memory for practice.

Tonal Harmony page 602

The way they have you doing it is the formula for the major scale WWHWWWH, W being 2 half steps, or 2 frets on the guitar (fret 1 to fret 3).

Starting on C:
A whole step from C is a D
A whole step from D is a E
A half step from E is a F
A whole step from F is a G
A whole step from G is a A
A whole step from A is a B
A half step from a B is a C

Every note is a whole step apart except E to F and B to C.

Personally I never found the WWHWWWH formula to be useful. Learn the circle of fifths, the order of flats (B E A D G C F) and sharps (F C G D A E B) and it would make it alot easier, atleast for me. That's the way I learned. So instead of counting whole steps and half steps from B you would know that B major has 5 sharps (F C G D A) so the B major scale is B C# D# E F# G# A#.
Last edited by d1sturbed4eva at May 17, 2011,
They do have you learn WWHWWWH, but I've been using my own way to remember it.

I've memorized BEADGCF, For flats I bit shift BEADGCF one bit to the right and have FBEADGC, Then I count to the scale letter, and that many notes into BEADGCF is the flats in the scale.
For sharps I reverse BEADGCF, so I have FCGDAEB, then bit shift it two to the left and have GDAEBFC then do the same. It's kind of an odd way to remember it, instead of just memorizing it, but I found it easier to just remember the steps to take.
Quote by sexiewasd
They do have you learn WWHWWWH, but I've been using my own way to remember it.

I've memorized BEADGCF, For flats I bit shift BEADGCF one bit to the right and have FBEADGC, Then I count to the scale letter, and that many notes into BEADGCF is the flats in the scale.
For sharps I reverse BEADGCF, so I have FCGDAEB, then bit shift it two to the left and have GDAEBFC then do the same. It's kind of an odd way to remember it, instead of just memorizing it, but I found it easier to just remember the steps to take.

i advise learning WWHWWWH. the way you use works, but it's more of a trick to just remember the order of sharps or flats.

by using WWHWWWH, you are actually able to construct the scale on a root, and therefore understand it (and therefore are capable of utilizing it better).
Anfangen ist leicht, Beharren eine Kunst.
To answer to question: it is flat.

They flatened the lower octave and assumed you knew that meant that note was flat on the higher octave.

I my opinion, they should have written the higher octave with a flat.
Understand nothing, in order to learn everything.

Quote by liampje
I can write a coherent tune ... But 3/4? I play rock, not polka.
Quote by sexiewasd
That is the way I understood it, as a scale having only 7 notes, and the eighth repeating.

Here is the answer page that confused me, It's the first section where they have you fill in the scales from memory for practice.

Tonal Harmony page 602

I use the mnemonics:

Father Christmas Gave Dad An Electric Blanket : F C G D A E B for sharps

and

BEAD Greatest Common Factor -- B E A D G C F -- for flats

So -- if you see five flats you are in Db and the flats are B E A D and G, then you count through the letters mindful of the 5 flats: Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Db

As for remembering the cycle of 5ths and the cycle of 4ths .. I always look at the guitar neck for that ... but I sorta just remember key signatures up to 4 sharps or 4 flats .. as soon as I see 5 sharps I have to look at the fretboard (yes, it is B,but I never remember)
(fat chicks get drunk at every bar)
Anfangen ist leicht, Beharren eine Kunst.