#1
Hey all.

I want to know what a fugue, sonata and symphony is, how it's written and what the difference are.
And possibly any other kind of thing named like fugue and sonata such as caprice.
#3
A Fugue is kind of a more complex canon, which is in turn kinda like a round (where one person sings, and then another joins in with the same part, but just starting later).
A sonata is complicated to explain, as it has a few meanings, but generally a sonata is a four-movement symphony, where the first movement is in sonata form. Sonata form consists of three basic sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation. The exposition is a set of subjects (usually two), with the first one in the tonic key (so if the movement is in C major the first subject is in C major), and the second in either the dominant (G major for the preceding example) or the relative major (so if it were in C minor, then Eb major). The Development is more exploratory, using some of the ideas from the exposition but passing through many key signatures, and doing things slightly more 'exciting' than the traditional close-key passing modulations found in other works. The recapitulation is the exposition, but with everything in the tonic key (so the G major second subject re-scored to be in C major).
A symphony is, as previously mentioned, a collection of works, usually three or four (depending on the era). Simplified a lot, generally the first movement and last are faster movements, with the second being a slow minor piece, and the third being a traditional dance (often from a typical Baroque suite, such as a minuet and trio). All three/four movements are played one after the other, with a slight pause in between them.
#5
^+1 to theknuckster

just to add one minor detail.. a fugue utilizes the ideas of counterpoint heavily.

All music uses counterpoint in some form (or species) but fugues are specific to strict counterpoint where as the Prelude to a Fugue is not so strict.
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#6
ha, I've never been too sure on what a fugue actually is myself, I've just heard that it is a reasonably complex idea similar to a canon, but thanks, I'll go and read up on it sometime.
#7
Yeah, this is all easily found on wikipedia. One thing I will say that is often missed is that Fugue is a technique, form and style.

The technique of fugue is to have one voice state a theme (called a subject in fugue), and another answer (often in the dominant) after that subject. Basically the same as a canon.

A fugue is a style of music that uses fugal technique.

And a fugue is a form that is standardized by Bach (before him, it was not a form) that utilizes two subject-answer pairs in a fugal exposition followed by a long developmental section filled with bits of the subject in rapid-fire sequences with sporadic statements of the subject and then a return to the subject.
#8
a sonata isn't a symphony. it's usually a work for a solo instrument (often for piano). it may resemble the structure of a symphony, but the symphony has the orchestra, the sonata has the solo instrument (sometimes two instruments). also, a fugue can appear in a symphony or a sonata, but a symphony can't appear in a sonata etc. fugue is a type of writing, while the others are based on instruments etc.
#9
Quote by gavk
a sonata isn't a symphony. it's usually a work for a solo instrument (often for piano). it may resemble the structure of a symphony, but the symphony has the orchestra, the sonata has the solo instrument (sometimes two instruments). also, a fugue can appear in a symphony or a sonata, but a symphony can't appear in a sonata etc. fugue is a type of writing, while the others are based on instruments etc.


this. a symphony and a sonata are types of work.

sonata-allegro and fugue are forms.
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#10
Quote by AeolianWolf
this. a symphony and a sonata are types of work.

sonata-allegro and fugue are forms.

So every classical work is written in one of these forms?
#12
Quote by liampje
So every classical work is written in one of these forms?


who the hell said that? one thing i'm sure your gonna get confused on (you seem to always find a way) is that sonata FORM and A SONATA are two totally different things. A sonata is, as i said, a piece in a few movements often for piano. sonata form on the other hand, is a way of presenting ideas, usually two contrasting ones.

there a lot of other forms, rondos etc, but sonata form is very very popular in common practice period music.