#1
This is going to be hard to explain so I'll try my best. I've noticed that a lot of bands have effects that dont necessarily affect a certain instrument but the song in general. theyre effects that create "atmospheres" some of the bands that i am thinking of that do this are radiohead, tv on the radio, and porcupine tree. so what effects do they use and how do they use them? and sorry if this isnt making sense
#3
Plug ins and studio based effects.

Compressors, limiters, modulation, reverb...
It's an opinion. It's subjective. And I'm right, anyway.
#4
Likely to be a mix of different modulation effects like delays, chorus and reverbs. On extreme settings these can create really spacey and tripping effects, but we'll need references to pin-point the exact effect.
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