#1
Hi people I dont really know if this post has already been created but since Im am quite new at Recording, Mixing, Mastering, I've been trying to learn more about it, I have found that people use loads of Acronyms, and different terminology to describe how you can fix stuff and things like that.

So, many times I get an explanation like this: you have to take your DS, and put some HTK into your PDST's, without taking too much MDC because it might affect the BYT's

And after that I honestly feel like WTF?

So I was thinking maybe you can help us noobies understand these things by sharing some of the Acronyms and Terminology you normally use in your explanations and you think we could be struggling with and add some explanation as in how they work

To start with Im gonna ask a bit more explanation on these things because I've already asked about this and its still a bit unclear to me:

Headroom?
HPF?
LPF?
difference between HPF and HPDF?

Hope you can help me with these ones and feel free to add and explain more acronyms and terminology

Thanks for your help!
#2
Headroom is the space between your files volume and the level where you clip ( 0dB, in digital)
Someone here might give a better explanation of this. Can't seem to get the right words.

HPF = High pass Filter, In EQ's or Synth, It cuts the low frequency and let the HIgh one pass.

LPF= Low Pass filter, opposite of HPF.

and I have no idea about the HPDF one sorry.
#3
Headroom - The amount of space between your volume and when it starts to clip. A little bit is a good thing so you have some room to work with. An example: If you're on the verge of clipping on the master and you want to turn up the bass channel, you have to turn everything else down first. If you have enough headroom and your mix is perfect except for the bass being just a hair quiet, all you have to do is turn up the bass because of that extra room you have to work with. Keep in mind that too much headroom can work against you.

HPF - High Pass Filter. Lets the highs pass and cuts the lows. Often used to knock off the bottom end that isn't/shouldn't be produced by a source. Example: A guitar doesn't need any extreme low end so you can throw on a HPF to clean it up a little bit and prevent a build up of unnecessary low frequencies that don't contribute to the mix.

LPF - Low pass filter. Lets the lows pass but cuts the highs. Example: If you only want the boomyness of a drum, thrown one of these bad boys on there to take out the attack and all the airiness.

HPDF - A typo.
#4
Quote by ShevanelFlip
Headroom is the space between your files volume and the level where you clip ( 0dB, in digital)
Someone here might give a better explanation of this. Can't seem to get the right words.

HPF = High pass Filter, In EQ's or Synth, It cuts the low frequency and let the HIgh one pass.

LPF= Low Pass filter, opposite of HPF.

and I have no idea about the HPDF one sorry.


Thank you for answers, by cliping, you mean distorting? What exactly do you mean, when you say, when it starts to clip?

When you HPF or LPF, how do you apply it, you just do this by manipulating a graph eq? is that it? or theres some sort of vst to do it?

What do you guys mean, by attack? how could you describe that sound?

And the same thing with airiness?

Clipping
Attack
Aireness

3 more words for the terminoly and acronyms dictionary
#5
Quote by damienro0
Thank you for answers, by cliping, you mean distorting? What exactly do you mean, when you say, when it starts to clip?

When you HPF or LPF, how do you apply it, you just do this by manipulating a graph eq? is that it? or theres some sort of vst to do it?

What do you guys mean, by attack? how could you describe that sound?

And the same thing with airiness?

Clipping
Attack
Aireness

3 more words for the terminoly and acronyms dictionary

Ok, by the looks of this thread my answer to your PM the other day confused you more than helped, so don't be offended but to make it quick I'm going to presume you have very basic science knowledge (i.e early school years)

HPF is a high pass filter. LPF is a low pass filter. What this means is they filter through only a specific portion of the sound - HPF lets through everything above the corner frequency (did you understand when I explained corner frequencies? usually the -3dB point of a frequency roll off) and gradually lets through less and less the further below you go. LPF does the exact opposite.

You use one either as a standalone plugin or part of a dynamic EQ, or roll off the faders of a graphic EQ to create your own, but they're all forms of EQ.

Clipping... think of sound as a series of fluctuations in the air pressure that vibrate the microphone/speaker... different speeds create different frequencies (faster speed = higher frequency/pitch). These fluctuations are displayed as a waveform, meaning as the diaphragm (bit that vibrates in microphone) moves to its furthest point before going the other way, it stops for one snippet of time and comes back again. Because it is a natural phenomenon, it is stationary at the end of its directional movement for an infinitely small time, so only one miniscule snapshot of the waveform will be at its highest point.

If you make the waveform louder, you make these high and low points further apart, and if they are too high/low they will go beyond the limit of the machine's headroom/digital headroom and part of the waveform will get chopped off (clipping) to compensate as it can not go beyond that point volumewise.This distorts the signal.

At work so will finish later.
Hey, look. Sigs are back.
#6
I'll jump in here.

So taking from Disarm said. Clipping is basically digital distortion. The problem is in CPU land distortion isn't like an amp (sounds awesome) is sounds bad. Harsh and not very nice.


Attack is more of generic term you give to the front part of any sound. Technically it's the time from the 0 volume to the loudest part of the sound.

So what does it sound like. Kick drum is a great example. The first part of the sound is the click (that's the beater hitting the skin) That would be the attack. The second part is the boom that would the sustain.


Airiness is one of those vague words that people who spend to much time listening to music like to throw around. It's the very highest part of the sound. 8 kilohertz and up. It's kind of hard to explain when a vocal seems to be light and have a sense of air it usual just a lot of 8k and above. (sorry this is a bit of a crap description)
So a slowly play keyboard has a longer attack time then a kick drum. Because it takes longer to reach the loudest part of the sound. Hence longer attack.
#7
Thank you for your replies people!
Im sorry for posting a different thread about this its just me trying to understand a bit more

About headroom, so if i take this concept and try to visualize it, then, headroom would be that empty space between the upper and lower limits, right? Hope i got it right

About airiness I think I am still confused about it

And as for HPF'ing and LPF'ing, its basically scooping or cutting the low/hight frequencies, when they are not needed right?

and clipping would be pretty much distorting, correct?

Please correct me if Im wrong

Thanks for being there to help people, specially disarm and wild! I've learnt a lot from you dudes!
#8
Quote by damienro0
Thank you for your replies people!
Im sorry for posting a different thread about this its just me trying to understand a bit more

About headroom, so if i take this concept and try to visualize it, then, headroom would be that empty space between the upper and lower limits, right? Hope i got it right


The space between the volume of the track and the clipping point


About airiness I think I am still confused about it


Airiness is basically around 8khz when you mix. Best way to figure it out is record some vocals use a high shef filter and lift 8khz+ and listen.


And as for HPF'ing and LPF'ing, its basically scooping or cutting the low/hight frequencies, when they are not needed right?


Kinda. When you are using a passing filter you are cutting everything below/above the point. So if you are using a high pass on your guitars at 80hz. You are not letting any sound below 80hz throw. Low pass would be the opposite cutting everything above 80hz. If you notch it, then you are just cutting a certain area, depending on the bandwith. The bandwidth being the size of the cut in simple terms. A Low shelf filter controls everything below it. So if you do a low shelf at at 200hz you are raising all frequencies below 200hz. If you do a high shelf you raise all frequencies above 200hz.

Shelf filter are like the opposite of Pass filters.

and clipping would be pretty much distorting, correct?

To keep it simple yes. Disarm addressed this more above if you want to get technical. Basically your wave tops and bottoms get cut off because you are to loud. In some times of music this is intentional.


Attack, Decay, Release, and Sustain all go together btw, especially for synths this is a big thing but also applies to filters and LFO (Low Frequency Oscillators). For attack its the time it takes a sound to reach its peak volume. Decay would you be the the time it takes the sound to go from the peak volume to the sustain volume. Sustain, the sustain volume mentioned before, the volume for the majority of the sound (thinking hold a note on a piano after the attack. Release is the time of the decay from the sustain to go back to no sound. This is the ADSR letters you see on filter and synths, called the ADSR envelope.

Sorry if I threw to much info at you at the end.
Last edited by FireHawk at Oct 24, 2011,
#9
Quote by FireHawk


Sorry if I threw to much info at you at the end.


No man that was awesome, but you confused me a bit on the headroom explanation, i think the way i explained it says the same thing you are saying but in different words, so i dunno i what way i am wrong

Now with your last explanation i have 2 more questions

What would be the difference between a limiter and a compressor?

and what is Low frequency oscillator?

Thanks Firehawk!
#10
Headroom:

Imagine that your upper range for volume is your ceiling in your room. How high you jump is how loud you are. Make little tiny jumps, representing a small dynamic range, and you will never hit your head on the ceiling. An average adult in an average room will have at least a foot. Start jumping higher, representing a greater dynamic range, and now you're down to four inches. If you have a LOT of dynamic range - much bigger jumps - you will eventually run out of headroom and hit your head.

Clipping: see above example - when you hit your head. Digital clipping sounds like there is something wrong with your speakers - it's like a harsh crackling sound.

Compression vs. limiting - A compressor will control the dynamic range of program material (your music) within a ratio. Let's say you set your compressor to a 2:1 ratio above a certain threshold (limit... say, -10db). That means that any part of the signal that is less than -10db remains unaffected. Any part of the signal that goes above -10db will get reduced by half. So, for instance, if you have a snare hit that would otherwise have hit -2db, that means that it exceeded your threshold by 8db. The compressor (set at 2:1) would squash that by 4db, meaning it would top out at -6db. Set at 4:1, it would squash it by 6db, meaning it would top out at -8db.

A limiter reduces the dynamic range also, but instead of being by a ratio, it is an absolute. Go back to the above example. You have a snare hit that tops out at -2db. Put a limiter on it at -10db, and it will now top out at -10db.

Low Frequency Oscillator - Well, to oscillate means to move back and forth. In music, when something like a guitar string moves back and forth, it creates a sound wave. A low frequency oscillator, then, is something that generates sounds at a low frequency.

CT
Could I get some more talent in the monitors, please?

I know it sounds crazy, but try to learn to inhale your voice. www.thebelcantotechnique.com

Chris is the king of relating music things to other objects in real life.
#11
Quote by axemanchris
Headroom:


Low Frequency Oscillator - Well, to oscillate means to move back and forth. In music, when something like a guitar string moves back and forth, it creates a sound wave. A low frequency oscillator, then, is something that generates sounds at a low frequency.

CT


So to put this into practice lfo would be used to change the rate of signal like a chorus the actual way it oscillator has to do with the selected wave. Sine (up down like a wave) Square (Hard up then hard down).

Depending on which wave you select, the speed you select to oscillator and the thing you select it to modulate (to affect) it can be in subtle and not so subtle ways .

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlGuZbwls9k

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7SU6XPSvpI&feature=related
#12
Quote by axemanchris

A limiter reduces the dynamic range also, but instead of being by a ratio, it is an absolute. Go back to the above example. You have a snare hit that tops out at -2db. Put a limiter on it at -10db, and it will now top out at -10db.
CT


Almost.

The only difference between compression and limiting is ratio. A limiter is anything 10:1 and up. Some people say there's a difference between hard and soft limiting, but as a whole, it's 10:1 and higher.
#13
True enough. Technically, what I described was a brick wall limiter. I just wanted to keep it simple enough for the sake of explanation, but I did make the mistake of over-simplifying it a little.

CT
Could I get some more talent in the monitors, please?

I know it sounds crazy, but try to learn to inhale your voice. www.thebelcantotechnique.com

Chris is the king of relating music things to other objects in real life.