So there was a problem with my pickups on an AXL Johnson strat copy in which all the pickups had diminished output.

When I took off the pickguard and checked it out, sure enough, the wire running from the jack to the volume pot was loose and about to separate.

I unsoldered the jack and trem claw ground to take off the pickguard, resoldered the wire from the jack to the volume pot, and then resoldered the ground from jack to pot and then the rest of the parts.

Problem: Now the guitar makes 0 noise at any position.

Before, it just had decreased output. On top of that, based on wiring diagrams, the jack's output should go to the middle prong on a volume pot and the left prong should go to the 5 way switch. On my guitar, that's reversed, but it worked before so I see no reason for it to actually be wrong.

Troubleshooting help?
The input to the volume knob is on the left (it could be on the right as well) and the out (going to the jack) is in the middle. You must always have the output from the volume knob in the middle prong since the middle one is the only one that actually changes in value.
So based on what you've written I don't see other solutions than this. Hope you understood what I meant here! =)
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Based on what you've said, the guitar came incorrectly wired, somehow operated correctly, and now requires me to completely rewire?

That's what confused me from the very beginning. I understand that you've outlined to me what is supposed to go to what on the volume pot, but based on how the guitar came initially, I don't see how this is possibly the problem.
As far as the middle and left lugs on the volume pot go, the wires can be reversed and the guitar will still work. Like your guitar worked before. I've worked on many guitars and several of them were wired like that. Just resolder the wires that you soldered the first time. Make sure they are connected good. Also make sure you didn't pull the wires loose from the jack itself.
So it can work, but are you saying that I should resolder the wires to the places on the diagram? And as far as the jack itself, I resoldered that too.

Another possible problem is that my dad fried the volume pot on his first wire removal attempt. (I've done all subsequent soldering).

He tried when the iron wasn't hot enough and held it on the pot's lug for about 5-8 seconds poking and prodding before giving up. Multiple times. Could he have fried the pot?
The pot should survive the torture. Make sure you didn't accidentally wire things up so you're shorting out the signal. If you've crossed a hot wire with a ground wire you're going to short out the circuit.