#1
I'm just wondering if I need to pick up speaker cable, or if I can send the amplified signal from my amp to my cab via a standard mic/instrument cable.

It's for recording purposes, so I want to have the amp in the control room and send the signal through my patchbay into my live room, but I don't want to break anything or start any fires.
#2
Speaker cable, definitely. Especially over long runs. Instrument cable isn't meant to handle the higher current and the conductor may burn out, which can mess up your amp in a hurry.
#4
probably shouldn't use your patchbay either.
Jumping on dat gear sig train.
PRS Hollowbody II / BKP Warpigs
Strandberg OS6T / BKP Aftermath
Strandberg OS7 / Lace Poopsticks
Skervesen Raptor 7FF / BKP Warpigs
Skervesen Raptor 6 NTB / BKP Juggernauts
Hapas Sludge 7 FF / Hapas Leviathan
Anderson Baritom / Motorcity Nuke BKP Sinner Anderson H2+
Warmoth Baritone / BKP Piledriver
Ibanez Rg2120x / BKP Nailbomb

Blackstar ID:Core Beam
#6
Yeah, there's no point in using my patchbay anyways, as I could only send it out a standard mic cable with the way I have it set up. I have an old semi-plugged hole from before I set up my snake that I can use to run a speaker cable.