#2
the key of a song is dependent upon what key signature it is written in. Basically meaning what sharps and flats it has in it. For instance, C major has no sharps and no flats, so a song in this key would not contain any (there are exceptions)

something in c flat major contains ALL flat notes, rather than regular notes.
G major only contains f sharp.

etc.
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#3
The only real answer is that you listen to where it resolves, and then figure out if its major or minor.

You can't deduce it just from a chord progression, although some chord progressions seem to want to resolve in simple places. But there are too many different permutations. (eg, is a song with G, A, and D in D major ... or is it in G major with the A borrowed from the parallel minor?)

So you really do have to learn how to use your ears to hear a sense of resolution. Luckily, that's one of the first things you're likely to develop once your start focusing on your ear.
#4
Quote by HotspurJr
The only real answer is that you listen to where it resolves, and then figure out if its major or minor.

You can't deduce it just from a chord progression, although some chord progressions seem to want to resolve in simple places. But there are too many different permutations. (eg, is a song with G, A, and D in D major ... or is it in G major with the A borrowed from the parallel minor?)

So you really do have to learn how to use your ears to hear a sense of resolution. Luckily, that's one of the first things you're likely to develop once your start focusing on your ear.

hate to be a pedant but an A would not be from the parallel minor, as it would then be an A diminished. if anything, it's quite likely to be a secondary dominant though, as long as the D is a dominant seventh (generally)
#5
As said, it's where the song resolves. However, in analysing more complex songs, you'll find that keys can change mid-song and accidentals get used, amongst other things. Therefore, if you are using the information to solo over something, be aware that you can't just piss about using a set of seven notes, you have to be aware of what you are playing over. Ignoring what you're playing over, and instead just focusing on just "playing in key", will more that likely sound like shit.
#6
You can hear it. When a one is in B it'll sound like it's in B. I guess that you'll be able to hear it after playing for a while.