You can learn E-G really easy, but the thing with standard tuning makes it somewhat harder.

For the E-G, remember that the octaves are always 2 frets and 2 strings apart.

Remember chord shapes. Take a chord shape, and play each note one octave lower or higher. Remember those.

Learn the pentatonics shapes.
Learning the major and minor scales plus their pentatonics, and learning how to combine them really helped me in visualising notes on the fretboard. Also, learning relative scales and modes such as dorian, phyrigian dominant etc...
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If you understand how a major scale is constructed then learn one note on the fretboard, for me it was the "A" at the 5th fret.

From there, I see the "B" and "C" right in front of me. Oh look, my pinky on the D string is on the "A" octave. Note by note they connect.
First you have to remember all the strings.

Now, after that, you have to know - the fifth fret on a string is the empty string under it. Fifth fret E = A note >>> empty A string. This IS NOT true for the D and B string. You can move that around the whole neck. Sixth fret on the E string is an A# which is of course the FIRST fret on the A STRING. And so on.
Remember that the SEVENTH fret is the OCTAVE of the string OVER it. Seventh fret on A is an E. Seventh fret on a D string is an A. Move that around the neck, too!
And the octave pattern > 2 frets + 2 strings.

This all doesn't apply to the high B and E strings as the B changes everything by one fret.

After that, learn ALL possible chord shapes, even those which you can't play as a six string chord. A chord has at least 3 notes. It is like a tiny scale. Learn where ALL the notes of the chord are, not just the ones you play during a barre.

Only after that can you really start heavily learning and practicing scales and modes.
Last edited by realsmoky at Jun 4, 2014,
Learn the theory side of the major scale (assuming you don't already know it), then learn the major scale in all 5 positions on the guitar whilst saying the note out loud. After a few weeks you become pretty used to where all the notes are. Then work out the arpeggios of all the triads and 7th chords that are in the scale, in each of the 5 positions of the major scale. Then work out more arpeggios, these also help to learn how to create these chords and alternatives from barre chords, you can further this by learning the inversions of the chords as well. Then from their work out the modes, not that you'll really need them anymore... And as many scales as you can work out!
Learn the first 2 strings, then the octaves. Falso scales helps, ex: major scale, and understand the degrees. Bu most important COMMITMENT.
Quote by xNuno
Learn the first 2 strings, then the octaves. Falso scales helps, ex: major scale, and understand the degrees. Bu most important COMMITMENT.

You basically said everything I told him in short. You deserve a cookie.