#1
I can't remember the name of the technique, but it basically adds stresses to certain notes to make it sound as if a melody/rhythm is playing duple time, despite it being in 3 or 6 time etc.
Beethoven used it a lot.
There's a specific word for it; if anyone knows what I mean please tell me!

Thanks
#3
Do you mean like a song in 3/4 but it accents every second beat instead of every third beat (so instead of two bars of 3/4, it kind of sounds like three bars of 2/4)? That's called a hemiola. Yeah, and it's one kind of a polyrhythm.
Quote by AlanHB
Just remember that there are no boring scales, just boring players.

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#4
It's hard to explain, it was taught to me as being like "1 2 3, 1 2 3, 1 2, 1 2 3, 1 2 3" and I can't for the life of me remember how to notate it..