#1
Yo people, I'm just making this post out of curiosity, that's all. Anyway, searches for ‘MIDI pedal' and ‘MIDI pedalboard interface' only yielded DIY mods that you'd do to your individual pedals. So my question is this: can you, and if so, how, run an all analog pedalboard made up of different pedals through MIDI, with different combinations of pedals and their settings (the easiest solution that I can think of to running pedal combinations ONLY is a MIDI programmable power supply that would have to be hella versatile to accommodate 99% types of pedals, but various searches for this also yielded only DIY mods, and then you'd have to run multiple of the same pedal)?

So just for an example, say I wanted one sound which is perfectly clean, but has a very thick, lush chorus on it and a fair bit of reverb, another one which has much less reverb and uses a phaser (a la EVH), and a high gain sound with a touch of chorus and a delay, all using the same one pedal for the same effect, what would I need to do?

Or did I just summarise the reason why top - of - the - range Multi FXs and multiple loops on one amp are viable?
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#2
from what i can think of you have two options.

1. Line6 Pod HD500. Full on multi fx, midi compatable etc. CAn create all the tones you want and also control an amp. 4 cable method is available and great amp tones from it.

2. Pedal board - all the pedals you want and a Joyo PXL live or higher midi looper. Like the carl martin, gig rig etc. Get the pedals that you want the sound of and then use the switcher to cahnge amp channels, and the list of FX that you wanna use on that tone. However this will need a midi/TRS compattable amp.

Let us know of what gear you have and we can advise accordingly.
My Rig:
Maverick F-1, Ibanez RG1527, Schecter Omen 8
Marshall JVM 410H,
Hand built 4x12 w/ V30s
Current board:
PXL LIVE
TU2
WHAMMY IV
MXR M132
MXR M101
TIMMY
NS2
MXR M108
XOTIC EP
TC DREAMSCAPE
DL8
Last edited by loki_lulamen at Jan 31, 2015,
#3
Quote by 2Crosser


Or did I just summarise the reason why top - of - the - range Multi FXs and multiple loops on one amp are viable?


Pretty much this.
Most MIDI setups turn a pedal on or off; they don't change the settings. If you want three different sounds based on a single pedal, you pretty much have to have three separate examples of the same pedal available to the MIDI chain.

Doing what you want to do was a complicated deal even with MIDI-capable rack gear.

This is one of the reasons why Multi-FX/modelers are successful. I can store one whole group of settings for a specific "pedal" in a single user preset and then store another group of settings for the same "pedal" in another user preset and swap between them. Even with two pedals (and no MIDI setup) you'd have to turn one off and the other on.

When things get even more complicated, the Multi-FX really come into their own, because each effect (and each amp and each cabinet's EQ and so on) can be stored in a user preset to be activated with a single stomp.

If you've got a Line 6 Variax (modeling guitar that will also do alternate tunings) connected to, say, an HD500X via the Variax ethernet-style cable, you can change guitar model (Les Paul, tele, strat, 335, acoustics, etc.) with its settings, plus any alternate tuning (Open G, Drop B) you need, plus amp, cab, FX -- all with one stomp. These setups are also MIDI capable and can store and pass-through MIDI signals, so you could activate a special pedal in a drawer in your backline or start/stop a MIDI-controlled sequencer or synth or even change the venue lighting. One stomp.
#4
@loki: this was just out of curiosity anyway, I'm not going to be implementing this practically any time soon at all, although all of the high end amps I look at are MIDI compatible anyway and use MIDI boards for channel switching and the like. Thanks for the reply though. So yeah, I know Multi - FX can do all that (my favourite is Zoom G9.2tt ), but people generally prefer to see/hear single pedals being used, which is why I asked. However, I need to look into ‘MIDI loopers'. I see by your signature you use the one you suggested, are you running multiple of the same pedal if you want two sounds from the same pedal, or do you mod your pedals to be MIDI compatible too? Or is there another way?

@dspellman: I really have no need or want for a Variax/HD500X, but the venue lighting and the integration with other instruments is what actually intrigued me. So, I guess it's the Zoom for me, huh? See, I wanted single pedals because of the things like EarthQuaker Devices' Arpanoid and Korg's Miku Stomp, amazing single pedals that no one will ever integrate into a Multi. However, I could just run them in the FX Loop of the Multi, although there is no way to have, say, the Multi's flanger between the two pedals etc...
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
Last edited by 2Crosser at Jan 31, 2015,
#5
I do it with a GT-100 and a MIDI switchable amp, an RM100.
Gilchrist custom
Yamaha SBG500
Telecasters
Randall RM100 & RM20
Marshall JTM45 clone
Marshall JCM900 4102 (modded)
Marshall 18W clone
Fender 5F1 Champ clone
Atomic Amplifire
Marshall 1960A
Boss GT-100


Cathbard Amplification
My band
#6
Quote by Cathbard
I do it with a GT-100 and a MIDI switchable amp, an RM100.

I thought you said you were very specific when it comes to tone, you don't mind Multis?
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#7
I don't use a lot of effects, the GT-100 is fine. Sure my analog board is better but the GT-100 is just fine in a band setting, especially when using multiple amp channels. It removes the need for tap dancing.
Gilchrist custom
Yamaha SBG500
Telecasters
Randall RM100 & RM20
Marshall JTM45 clone
Marshall JCM900 4102 (modded)
Marshall 18W clone
Fender 5F1 Champ clone
Atomic Amplifire
Marshall 1960A
Boss GT-100


Cathbard Amplification
My band
#8
Quote by 2Crosser
can you run an all analog pedalboard made up of different pedals through MIDI, with different combinations of pedals and their settings


http://www.premierguitar.com/articles/19682-pedal-switcher-shootout

combinations, that is pretty easy. a midi controlled pedal switcher allows you to run any combination of pedals in any order, usually also allows you to make patches for the specific combinations and orders you want.

changing settings?

that is more complicated, usually i'll just see professionals running multiple copies of pedals if they want more than one setting. there is other options that are even more cumbersome that aren't really worth going into.

bottomline, this is a fairly expensive option usually found in pro rigs and are usually run in conjunction with other midi controlled digital multi-effects units anyway.

edit: there is even boxes that can interact with your amp to switch channels, so an amp that can't be switched via midi signal through a box. stuff like this

http://www.voodoolab.com/controlswitcher.htm

this would allow for switching amp channels and pedal combinations with one button tap.
punk isn't dead, it's always smelled that way.

"A perfection of means, and confusion of aims, seems to be our main problem."
-ae
Last edited by gumbilicious at Feb 1, 2015,
#9
@gumbi: ^...And what size of pedalboard and power supply would I need for such monstrosities?.. ^ This is the first time I have been genuinely scared of guitar gear...

If a Multi will do the job on a professional level, and as you said a Multi is involved most of the time anyway, and @Cath don't mind it, it seems like that's what I'll end up doing. I value my health, both mental and physical.
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#10
Quote by 2Crosser
@gumbi: ^...And what size of pedalboard and power supply would I need for such monstrosities?


size of the pedal board and power supply is dependent upon the foot print and number of pedals. if you have 9 pedals then you will need a power supply that can facilitate 9 pedals.

honestly, a voodoo labs pedal power 2+ would probably facilitate most your needs, if not then use two. they are: 6" wide x 3.4" deep x 1.8" tall (152 x 86 x 44 mm)
Weight: 2 lbs. (0.9 kg)

though most people who use this method in it's most effective form do not 'board' the system, they rack it instead. they'll place the pedals in drawers on a rack and plug the pedals into the switcher, then you remotely operate it all with a midi controller.

something like this:

punk isn't dead, it's always smelled that way.

"A perfection of means, and confusion of aims, seems to be our main problem."
-ae
#11
How much does that weight?.. Unless it's all taken apart, but then the setup will take hours... You tell me, is that practival for someone who does not use effects at all 75% of the time?.. If it is, and useful for integration with other appliances, then it's time for me to start planning a rack
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#12
Quote by 2Crosser
@loki: people generally prefer to see/hear single pedals being used,


Which people? Where are you playing?

Quote by 2Crosser
@dspellman: I really have no need or want for a Variax/HD500X, but the venue lighting and the integration with other instruments is what actually intrigued me. So, I guess it's the Zoom for me, huh? See, I wanted single pedals because of the things like EarthQuaker Devices' Arpanoid and Korg's Miku Stomp, amazing single pedals that no one will ever integrate into a Multi. However, I could just run them in the FX Loop of the Multi, although there is no way to have, say, the Multi's flanger between the two pedals etc...


I understand. I have two and a half of the flap-top 11-gallon bins stuffed with pedals. Seems like there's always another "amazing single pedal," you know? I have (as of this coming Monday) 52 guitars, each with something a little special or amazing about it. I have 15 different tube amps (most in storage these days) and a bunch of different speaker cabinets, including some you've never seen. And then there are the keyboards.

OTOH, I can cart a Pod and a Variax into a venue and come within about 85% of that whole mess and almost no one seems to know that I'm missing the other 15% that I'd have if I could take all of those other bits with me. And at the same time, I can do things with that 85% setup that I simply can't even consider with the whole bunch of the rest of that mess. It all depends on what you're doing and what you need to accomplish.
#13
THAT MUCH?! You know, you have so much gear that I DON'T envy you anymore...

The 'people' mentioned would be tone purists and other guitarists (yes, I understand that it's a very small portion of the audience), but my ultimate goal is to be liked by everyone/as much as possible, and I've never heard of anyone hating on single pedals, another reason why I asked. It is quite a problem that I run into all the time (@Cathbard would know), that I actually care what others think of me and my playing/tone/gear etc. more than what I myself think of it. Practically, you could say that I desperately wh*re myself out to the audience. If anyone has any tips on HOW to stop giving a sh*t about what others think, especially putting others' opinion over your own, I am all ears. Because I would love to just play whatever the hell I think sounds good without second thoughts - I reckon it would actually improve my physical playing.
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#14
I think that the best thing for you will be a multiFX unit, a top end one like the podHD or something similar. If you really want amazing tones out of it, you can also get a kemper profiler, a lot of bands just use that nowdays instead of real amps.

Honestly, getting a huge pedalboard, because you think people will like it more, is a pretty bad reason. And i can tell you from experience, that just as many people will complain about the pedalboard, as they would if you had a multifx. I used to have a drive and wah pedal, and annoying people said "oh man, thats not enough, you suck!". Then i had a multifx and the same people said "Oh no, you should have separate pedals, multi's suck, therfore you suck." Now i have a not-too-big pedalboard (6 pedals i think), and those same people are constantly shitting on it, saiyng "Its to big, you should have a multifx, you cant even hear the difference, you suck."

Moral of the story? The only people that will care, are people that either dont like you already, or jealous guitarists that have nothing better to do than complain about every part of your equipment. Especially if you play metal, metalhead guitarists are an annoying as **** bunch, especially the ones who cant actually play very well. I got hate for every piece of my gear, including the cab, amp, pickups, pedals, cables, straplocks (yes, straplocks) and even my goddamn strings. There is just no pleasing some people.
Joža je kul. On ma sirove z dodatki pa hambije.
#15
I was told that so many times, GET IT THROUGH YOUR HEAD ILYA (to myself)! But, could you please tell me about the straplock hate?.. I want to have a good laugh, this seems like an amazing story to tell your friends and kids and what not Also, what does your signature mean, and what language? I am Slavic myself, but have no idea how to read that/what it is.
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#16
Quote by 2Crosser
THAT MUCH?! You know, you have so much gear that I DON'T envy you anymore...


You definitely wouldn't envy my storage or insurance bills. As I pointed out to someone recently, I've never "collected" -- just sort of "accumulated." Do that long enough, pick up other people's "unfashionable" castoffs and suddenly you've got "vintage" stuff worth silly money. But if you're not actually using it, you're a caretaker.

Quote by 2Crosser
The 'people' mentioned would be tone purists and other guitarists (yes, I understand that it's a very small portion of the audience), but my ultimate goal is to be liked by everyone/as much as possible, and I've never heard of anyone hating on single pedals, another reason why I asked.


I've generally gone my own way on gear (I started as a keyboardist, and no one else in the band could tell if I had "cool" gear or not). Following the herd (peer pressure) is very much a teeny-bopper thing. Guitarists nodding their heads approvingly at your gear is like the cheerleading squad braiding each others' hair and coordinating their periods.
#17
Quote by 2Crosser
I am Slavic myself, but have no idea how to read that/what it is.


It means "Jozie is cool. Cut your toenails before I throw a ham and cheese sandwich on them."
#18
Quote by 2Crosser
How much does that weight?.. Unless it's all taken apart, but then the setup will take hours... You tell me, is that practival for someone who does not use effects at all 75% of the time?.. If it is, and useful for integration with other appliances, then it's time for me to start planning a rack

these types aren't meant to be tore apart. you just put plates on the front and back and unplug a few cords. they have wheels, so you push them around.

i don't personally know any casual player that uses a setup like this. this is something akin to a professional setup that a guitar tech would take care of. it is not practical in most cases.

you can get more practical rack setups, just get a 4U rack with preamp, effects and power amp and that is about the size of a regular guitar amp.

edit: just to be plain about what i have been saying: I am not advocating a rack setup, i have merely been trying to answer your questions as to how people approach what you specifically talked about in your original post.
punk isn't dead, it's always smelled that way.

"A perfection of means, and confusion of aims, seems to be our main problem."
-ae
Last edited by gumbilicious at Feb 1, 2015,
#19
Quote by 2Crosser
I was told that so many times, GET IT THROUGH YOUR HEAD ILYA (to myself)! But, could you please tell me about the straplock hate?.. I want to have a good laugh, this seems like an amazing story to tell your friends and kids and what not Also, what does your signature mean, and what language? I am Slavic myself, but have no idea how to read that/what it is.


Well it was actually two separate ocasions, once i was a pussy because i couldnt handle a "little danger" on stage, and that makes me "fake" or whatever. Im honestly not sure because i was a little drunk, and also i started laughing at the guy before he finished. The other time, i was called an idiot because i spent money on straplocks instead of just using duct tape.

I was also called a pussy for having '10 guage strings, since they are to soft for D tuning, and then i was criticised for using '11s because they are to hard, and you cant shred on them. Also, the cables i use are either to expensive or to cheap. People are stupid. I mean, the majority is nice, and i love talking to people after our shows, but there is just one of these annoying dicks on every 4th of 5th gig.

And the signature translates to "Joža is cool. He has hamburgers and cheese rolls with toppings." Its a stupid refrence to my old high school cook. I was 15 or 16 when i made the account, and i just never got around to changing it.
Joža je kul. On ma sirove z dodatki pa hambije.
Last edited by gorkyporky at Feb 1, 2015,
#20
@dspell: love your analogies! I guess if people stay around for long enough, we ourselves will be vintage and worth lots of money

@gumbi: tell me, say I became the next [insert uber - famous player here], could I get away without a rack setup?..

@gorky: omigod gorky, wadahell? Don't you know tape fixes everything?! ... For Christ's sake man, that is amazing, I can't imagine what those people look like... Make sure to tell your kids one day if they get into music and what not, they'll love you
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
Last edited by 2Crosser at Feb 1, 2015,
#21
Yeah. You know, i was a lot like you, trying to make everyone like me, but it just doesnt happen. Now i just laugh it of when i get criticized about stupid stuff like equipment, and when they criticize the music or stage show or whatever, i try to take it into consideration and improve everything (eventho i die a little inside when they say we suck ). So yeah, i know where you are coming from.

Are you in a band or just playing at home? If you are playing at home, you can literaly get any type of equipment you want, but if you are in a band and playing live, you will deifinately want to get something that sounds good, but is the most compact and handy as you can get. Seting up and tearing down your stage setup should be as quick and fast as you can get it to be, since it usually cuts into your stage time. A well organized pedalboard or a multifx is your best bet here, altough i guess a rack setup with a controler would also be quick to setup. But, that will be much harder to transport around, and it will take way more space in the car/van that you use to get to the venue. It might not sound much now, but after a few shows you will be desperately looking for ways to minimize setup time and complexity, and ways to get rid of any unnecesary equipment.
Joža je kul. On ma sirove z dodatki pa hambije.
#22
I jump between a tiny board (OD and wah) and the GT-100 depending on my mood and nobody says shit to me apart from, "how do you get such a good sound?" If you sound good, that's all that matters. Tell the wankas to "f*** off." - or even better, outplay them.
Gilchrist custom
Yamaha SBG500
Telecasters
Randall RM100 & RM20
Marshall JTM45 clone
Marshall JCM900 4102 (modded)
Marshall 18W clone
Fender 5F1 Champ clone
Atomic Amplifire
Marshall 1960A
Boss GT-100


Cathbard Amplification
My band
Last edited by Cathbard at Feb 1, 2015,
#23
Quote by 2Crosser
@gumbi: tell me, say I became the next [insert uber - famous player here], could I get away without a rack setup?..


you get famous and you don't even have to worry about what you play with, you'll pay someone to set it all up for you. Premier Guitar will be asking you question and you'll just say "I don't know what i run, ask my guitar tech"
punk isn't dead, it's always smelled that way.

"A perfection of means, and confusion of aims, seems to be our main problem."
-ae
#24
@Cath: oh hell yeah I will be outplaying the ****s (not, I wanna be a rhythm guitarist ) Oh and also, I am thinking of getting a GrandMeister (H&K) with a 212, small head as per what @gorky was saying. Cause I looked at the current exchange rates for the Oz to US dollar, and I SERIOUSLY don't wanna pay more for the modules to be nodded than what the amp itself costs (RM100C Randall, @gorky, it was the #1 suggestion in a thread I started a while ago). And that H&K look... Am I alright if I say I LOVE it?.. It has all the sounds I want, mind you, and is priced decently at fivestar music.

@gorky: yeah I hear ya, wanna be getting a decent amp ^ and joining a band imminently.

@gumbi: I can respect James Hetfield as a player, same with Dimebag (Hendrix bless his heart), but I am not like that. I actually want to manage my own tone, know and handle every little thing in my chain etc myself (ie no tech for me). Or will I not be able to do that either?
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#25
Have you seen this?
http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/Randall-MTS-Series-RM100-Guitar-Amp-2x12-100w-All-Tube-Valve-Combo-Plexi-Module-/231257688576?pt=AU_Amplifiers&hash=item35d8084a00
Brand new. Already loaded with modules. Bloody good price.

That's from the same people that I bought my RM20 and my GT-100 from.

Just a thought. No exchange rates or nuthin, they're in Sydney.
Gilchrist custom
Yamaha SBG500
Telecasters
Randall RM100 & RM20
Marshall JTM45 clone
Marshall JCM900 4102 (modded)
Marshall 18W clone
Fender 5F1 Champ clone
Atomic Amplifire
Marshall 1960A
Boss GT-100


Cathbard Amplification
My band
#26
Yeah, that's exactly the one that was linked way back when, I know, I even talked to the guys on the phone (remember how I asked if they would swap the modules around for it, cause the boutique modules I wanted at the time had to have specific donors? Yeah, the answer was a 'no, sorry'. The problem is that if you remember the modules that was on the second - last one AND this back then, it is evident they swapped it for whoever took the other one, unless I'm missing something massive).

But I want all them (by that I mean all three to be) 'boutique' modules, this is just the default Randall ones (not saying that they are bad), but I do not settle for anything but top of the range available for that specific model (another one of my stupidities , I don't even HAVE any top - end gear, only played through most things that my friends and acquaintances happen to have, which is another one of the 'other people's thoughts' factors... ) The modules' mod price is what kills it for me.

The amp itself is damn good but with buying two sets of tubes for it (one good one to put in, one good spare and one set spares that came with it), a case, a stand, and a Thor powerboard (to protect it from surges) it comes out at about $2800. I want that amp, but the appeal is not there with the current rate. I absolutely promise to join the Syndicate (the RM thread) as soon as the Oz dollar is back to at least ~ 90 - ish American cents. Unless the big question that I asked in the other thread gets answered: can anyone within the 'island' ( ) mod the modules? If yes, then f*ck H&K, as I still stand by the fact that the MTS module technology is the best thing for guitar amps period in my opinion.

And that amp will let me use the MIDI solution that we came up with in the thread, just relating back on - topic Lately, I have been derailing threads left and right, my own included...

P.S. If you are angry with me for my st00pid teenage logic , I understand, but you need to know that whatever frustration you feel, I am directing towards myself too, multiplied by teenage hormones and what not
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#27
Just buy it and worry about tailoring the modules later. Don't get ahead of yourself.
Gilchrist custom
Yamaha SBG500
Telecasters
Randall RM100 & RM20
Marshall JTM45 clone
Marshall JCM900 4102 (modded)
Marshall 18W clone
Fender 5F1 Champ clone
Atomic Amplifire
Marshall 1960A
Boss GT-100


Cathbard Amplification
My band
#28
I'm buying before trying though, and I would need to see what the stock modules sound like (the ‘boutique' ones have customer support for what they sound like etc, remember reading in the Syndicate about someone discussing the SLO module with the manufacturer, don't remember which though), and not YouTube demos. On the other hand, next weekend I'm in the city anyway for this Russian celebration, so I will be checking the GM out in person.
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.
#29
Trust me, an RM100, even with stock modules, will slay a H&K.


Edit. I'm the one with the SLO module. It wasn't the one I had tailored to my needs - that was the Markus. The SLO module is stock. If you want to hear it, click on the link to my band's bandcamp page in my sig. There's no effects on that, not even a boost. It's straight into the SLO module with the MV turned down a long way.
Gilchrist custom
Yamaha SBG500
Telecasters
Randall RM100 & RM20
Marshall JTM45 clone
Marshall JCM900 4102 (modded)
Marshall 18W clone
Fender 5F1 Champ clone
Atomic Amplifire
Marshall 1960A
Boss GT-100


Cathbard Amplification
My band
Last edited by Cathbard at Feb 2, 2015,
#30
I'm a cheapo. If that H&K can do 'the' sound that I want, there is no reason for me not to get it, as it comes out like $4 - 600 cheaper than the RM100 with a 212 (EL84s cost way less than EL34s, I can buy a 112 too/instead if I want to and cut the price by another $400, and the H&K needs no case etc. In fact, if I transport it IN a proper case, I void warranty, but not if I do in the included padded bag). Also, the TSC. Whether it is a gimmick or not (apparently not according to the opened up pictures on the net), it appeals to lazy cheapos like myself, even with the super easy RM bias.

And the MIDI board functionality is a tad bit better on the GM, which is not as loud (I know that 36 tube watts is still more than what 99% even want). Look, I need to try the GM out before I start 'defending' a to - be purchase. The appeal, is that I can try the GM but not the RM at all.
The above post is in terms of 'YMMV' and 'IMO', etc...

Quote by Offworld92
This debate is exhausting to read.
The guitar world is drowned in fairy dust.
We need to start at the very beginning. What is tone.