Recently I broke my A string and the gauge I was using used a .046 for it (it's setup for drop C) and was wandering if I could use a low E string from a light set I have to replace it because it's the same gauge or would it have too much tension?
Should be fine to be honest. People always forget that the actual breaking point tension for any guitar string is waaaaay beyond whatever it's being tuned to. You'd get away with it no worries. Will it hurt the guitar? Probably not if you ask me if it's the same gauge and it's not in E standard.
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I once broke a high E on an acoustic and had to resort to using a spare .16 gauge B string tuned up to an E for a few weeks. Worked fine
.046 is .046. There's no such thing as an "A" .046 and an "E" .046.