#1
e|----------------------------------------------|
B|---------------------------------------------|
G|9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9--|
D|---------------------------------------------|
A|7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7--|
D|---------------------------------------------|

PLease tell me what these chords are called. I know that they r used to harmonize and stuff. bt what are their names? And how do I play these with power chords as harmonizing.
#2
Those are Octaves, they are the same note(E) just one is a higher pitch than the other.

When you play your first finger should be fretting the note on the fifth string 7th fret but resting lightly on the the 4th string in order to mute it.
#3
This is an example of an interval (2 pitches played either at the same time, or one after the other). On guitar, piano, and most Western instruments, they are designed so that adjacent piano keys, and adjacent frets on the SAME string (and think of the nut as the zero fret) produce pitches that are one semitone apart. If you play 12 frets above a given pitch on same string, that higher pitch is 12 semitones higher, which is called an octave.

The shape you gave above is another way of playing two pitches 12 semitones apart, when in standard tuning.

Physically, the higher pitch is twice the frequency of the lower one. So, 5th fret on treble E string, when the guitar is tuned in concert pitch, produces a pitch at 440 Hz. 17th fret produces 880 Hz. Both get the same musical letter to name them ("A").

But, fret 1 to fret 13 on that string is also an octave (both named "F") , and so on.

The octave is a very stable sound ... you can hear a very strong relationship.

If you're into maths, a pitch a semitone higher than another pitch is 1.059 x the frequency of the lower one. But it's only really useful to know about frequencies if you're into sound recording ... however, the point is that the sound you hear formed by two pitches depends entirely on the number of semitones between the pitches, an dstacking these creates the various sound flavours you hear with chords.

By contrast, try playing two pitches a semitone apart, such as

e: 0
b: 4
g: x
d: x
a: x
e: x

This is a very unstable, clashy sounding interval.

The sooner you learn about intervals (super easy), the quicker you'll demystify the guitar fretboard, and the quicker you'll start to understand music.
Last edited by jerrykramskoy at Jan 3, 2017,
#4
Garris Ok man..here's another example.
e|----------------------------------------------|
B|9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9--|
G|---------------------------------------------|
D|---------------------------------------------|
A|7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7--|
D|---------------------------------------------| The structure looks quite similar and playing techniques is also similar.
(1) Is this chord still 'E'?
(2) How much the pitch shifts in this case?
(3) I learnt a song yesterday, Where C#m is played in the backup of this particular chord. What's the reason?
(4) In case of guitar solos one guitar is played one third above. Does the same rule apply here? That the lower chord is in C#m and higher is in E?
I know I asked a lot of questions. But it would be of a great help .
#5
jerrykramskoy Hahaha... your explanation was super fun. Actually I am an engineering student. So that explanation just cleared everything. Now I got another question. (Which I wrote in a reply byt gonna ask you anayway )
e|----------------------------------------------|
B|9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9-9--|
G|---------------------------------------------|
D|---------------------------------------------|
A|7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7--|
D|---------------------------------------------| The structure looks quite similar and playing techniques is also similar.
(1) Is this chord still 'E'?
(2) How much the pitch shifts in this case?
(3) I learnt a song yesterday, Where C#m is played in the backup of this particular chord. What's the reason?
(4) In case of guitar solos one guitar is played one third above. Does the same rule apply here? That the lower chord is in C#m and higher is in E?
I know I asked a lot of questions. But it would be of a great help .
#6
Psychosohan

Cool. Two frequencies, f1, f2, are N semitones apart if f2 = f1 ** (N/12). Hence, N = 12 (12 semitones), f2 = f1 * 2.

You example above is actually the interval of 16 semitones ... 12 semitones takes us to the E in the next octave, and then we're another 4 semitones above that.
Normally, we don't worry about the precise octave, so, loosely speaking, we have an interval of 4 semitones above an E. This is musically known as a "major 3rd". Again, a very stable sound. Reduce the interval by one semitone (e.g to 8th fret on B string), and you get, loosely, 3 semitones above an E. Known as a "minor 3rd". These two intervals are everywhere in music.

So, with your example, you don't yet have a chord. But if you were to add in 9th fret on D string, this is 7 semitones above the E, known musically as a "perfect 5th". This combination of root (E, our measuring point), maj 3rd, and 5th, together make a chord known as a "major" (so, the name "major" is short hand for this collection of intervals), and because we're measuring from E, you have an E major chord (aka E major triad, and written simple as "E").

To understand the semitone distances is very easy ... take a look at https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/for_beginners/a_deep_look_at_guitar_shapes.html, but take a look at https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/music_theory_tips/drastically_cut_learning_time_with_intervals.html as well.

C#m is the relative minor to E major triad. We're getting into theory now.

Not sure I follow (4) ... I don't think you mean chord. I suspect what you are talking about is where two guitars play melody lines, where each pair of pitches are either a maj 3rd or a min 3rd apart, based on the key.

For example, do you know the G major scale? (6th string, frets 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, .... then repeats in next octave ... 15, 17, 19, 20 etc)

If one guitar starts at fret 3 (the root of the scale), the other guitar could start at fret 7 (=4 semitones=maj 3rd higher), and each then advances up the scale.
Gtr1 moves 3 -> 5. Gtr 2 moves 7 -> 8. Look at 5 and 8 together. 3 semitones apart (=min 3rd).

Music is ALL about RELATIONSHIPS (relative distances, semitones, between groups of pitches ... this is what creates sound flavours)... it is NOT about actual individual pitches involved. Where these relationships occur in time (rhythm) is hugely important (strong and weak beats). It's all about putting together intervals that create a sense of unease to the ear, mixed up with those that create a sense of ease or relief to the ear ... whihc creates emotional response in the listener.
Last edited by jerrykramskoy at Jan 3, 2017,
#7
Jerry's explanations are great and I have been reading his lessons on intervals, def give them a read.

Learning the intervals things have started to make sense in a way that it didn't for me before.
#8
jerrykramskoy

You are a lifesaver man. That clears up a lot of things actually. I read your lesson and i'll read it several more times. May b I couldn't make myself clear about the 4th question. (English isn't my first language you know). But in the later you said,

"If one guitar starts at fret 3 (the root of the scale), the other guitar could start at fret 7 (=4 semitones=maj 3rd higher), and each then advances up the scale.Gtr1 moves 3 -> 5. Gtr 2 moves 7 -> 8. Look at 5 and 8 together. 3 semitones apart (=min 3rd)"

This is about plaing a melody line with two harmonizing guitars with 3 semitone apart. Right? Can we take the similar approach and construct chords as well? The song I learnt was playing both these Chords E(the thing given in example) nd C#m in two guitars. Now, can I relate these two things theoretically? Or are they entirely different theories? I am a learner yet. I don't want to get overwhelmed with different theories at a time.
#9
Psychosohan Got you.

When 2 or more pitches are played at the same time, we call this "harmony", rather than individual pitches, one after another (which is melody).

Those 2 or more pitches can be played by one one or more instruments. Which is what you are desribing.

Let's look at G major scale again on bass string (3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14). In reality, the pattern, the recipe, for any major scale, is to choose pitches found at (0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11) semitones from the choice of scale root. With G major, in this example, the scale root (G) is at the 3rd fret on the bass string.

If we examine the intervals within the scale (between some scale pitch and its next but one scale pitch) we find some interesting properties. Any such pair of pitches are either 3 or 4 semitones apart. These are the most commonly used intervals in music, by far, known as the maj3 (4 semitones) and min3 (3 semitones). When these are combined (explained below), some very nice, stable sounding chords result. That is, listeners are very happy to accept these sounds, without thinking "ouch", whereas other combinations can produce the same reaction as dragging your nails down a chalk board. However, just staying on one of these stable sounds, without change to another stable sound, or to an unstable sound, can get boring.

Very simple concept: "CHOOSE SKIP CHOOSE SKIP CHOOSE" ... choose any scale pitch, skip the next scale pitch, choose the next etc.

Trying this with G major scale in 2 octaves (below), we find the foundation chords of western music.

G maj: 3 5 7 8 10 12 15 17 19 20 22 24 (26 ...)

starting at 3, using "CHOOSE SKIP", we get (3, 7, 10). The intervals here are 3->7 (4 semitones), and 7->10 (3 semitones), and 3->10 (7 semitones)

starting at 5, you get (5,8, 12) ... here the intervals are 5->8 (3 semitones), 8->12 (4 semitones), and 5->12 (7 semitones).

If you try this starting from any of the major scale pitches, apart from the 7th scale member (fret 14 for G major, and in general, the pitch 11 semitones above the scale root choice), you will find these same two patterns of either (0,4,7) or (0,3,7)


These two different patterns of stacked intervals (0, 4, 7) and (0, 3, 7) produce very different sounds, that are the basis of millions of tunes. The first is called a "major chord", or "major triad (triad because 3 different pitches involved). The second is called a "minor chord", or minor triad.

The above is a verbose way of arriving at the concept of major and minor chords.

Simply put, to create a major chord anywhere, choose your start pitch, and then play that, and also the pitches 4 and 7 semitones higher. This can be played melodically on one string, in any order you like. For a minor triad, choose a start, and then play 3 and 7 semitones above it.

These two sounds are very stable, and very common for starting and ending a chord progression.

Because the major scale yields these triads (remember the "choose, skip, choose, skip, choose") from each of its scale pitches, you can have chord progressions just using these.

Next, these recipes are generic ... e.g. for (0, 4, 7) [major triad]. Any combination of root pitch (0) in any octave, along with pitches 4 semitones above a root (in any octave) and 7 semitones above a root (in any octave) are considered to satifsy this pattern. Any such combination would still be called a major triad.

If you look at the triad found starting "choose, skip..." at the sixth pitch of the major scale (which is the 12th fret in G major (look at scale above), you'll find this is a minor triad. The next scale root (G) is at the 15th fret, 3 semitones higher. There we have a major triad, and we have this minor triad, 3 semitones apart. We say the major is the relative major triad to the minor triad, and the minor triad is the relative minor triad of the major. Note the use of the word RELATIVE ... the chord roots are found 3 semitones apart (relative to each other)

Finally, back to your example. If two guitars are playing the two intervals you showed, one of these is playing a major 3rd (4 semitones) off of E. The other is playing a perfect 5th (7 semitones) off of E. Combined, we have the pattern (0, 4, 7), with 0 positioned at E. They are playing an E major triad between them. C#m is the relative minor of E major triad (C# and E are 3 semitones apart).

This is very easy to understand when shown visually ... I will shortly be doing a video series on all this, using software I have been developing over several years. We are starting limited trials (30 people max) this month, by invitation, and releasing product around end March.

If you are interested, send me a private message. Be very welcome!

Summary:
---------------
Major triad pattern: (0, 4, 7) ... choose wherever you to align 0. The actual intervals can be placed in different octaves. They can be duplicated in different octaves. Regardless, still a major triad. Must be at least one of each interval present.
Minor triad pattern: (0, 3, 7) ... choose wherever you want to align 0. The actual intervals can be placed in different octaves. They can be duplicated in different octaves. Regardless, still a minor triad. Must be at least one of each interval present.
Major scale pattern: (0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11) ... choose wherever you want to align 0. Again, can repeat in different octaves.

With respect to the major scale pattern, if you align 0 of the major triad pattern at 0, 5 or 7 of the pitches in the major scale, you get a perfect match.
Equivalently, if you apply the "choose, skip, choose, skip, choose" concept at 0, or 5, or 7 of the pitches in the major scale, the resulting intervals in each of these stacks are all spaced out as (0, 4, 7) ... the major triad,

With respect to the major scale pattern, if you align 0 of the minor triad pattern at 2, 4 and 9 of the pitches in the major scale, you get a perfect match.
Equivalently, if you apply the "choose, skip, choose, skip, choose" concept at 2, 4, or 9 of the pitches in the major scale, the resulting intervals in each of these stacks are all spaced out as (0, 3, 7) ... the minor triad.
Last edited by jerrykramskoy at Jan 4, 2017,