Thats all what i would like to know...

-What are root notes, 3rd, and 5th, and how can knowing the root notes of a scale or chord benefit me?

Thank you
Those would be intervals. An interval is the distance between two notes. A root is a distance of "zero", the root of C would be the same C. A third is a distance of either 3 (minor) or 4 (major) semitones. A fifth is a distance of 7 semitones, from G to D for example.

If you don't know the root of the scale/chord your playing how do you even know what you're playing? If you need to play an A minor chord, you need to know what an "A" is, right? The rest of the intervals are used when you want to build scales, chords and chord progressions. Intervals are the basis of western music theory. All notes sound identical on their own, but when you play many different notes in context (=a composition) you use intervals to analyze the relationship between those notes. If you want to learn theory, I suggest you learn your intervals thoroughly.
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Thats all what i would like to know...

-What are root notes, 3rd, and 5th
They are simply notes counted up a scale, where root = "1st".
Technically, "root" refers to chords, not scales, because any note of a scale can be a chord root. The root of a scale is the "tonic" or "keynote".
So you could take the C major scale and start from the F note, call that the "root" (to build a chord), and count the 3rd and 5th notes up from there: A and C. (Get it?) That produces an F "major triad".

"3rd" and "5th" also refer to the "intervals", the pairs of notes involved, ie including the root you counted from. So F-A is a 3rd interval, and F-C is a 5th interval.

Things get complicated because intervals can be different sizes (in half-steps). That's where the terms "major", "minor", "perfect", etc come from. F-C is a "perfect 5th", meaning it measures 7 half-steps, which is a very pure and strong-sounding interval. Most scales and chords have perfect 5ths, because it makes them consonant and stable.
F-A is a "major 3rd", meaning it's the bigger of the two common sizes of 3rd. It measures 4 half-steps. A minor 3rd only measures 3 half-steps: eg. F-Ab, F#-A, C-Eb, or D-F. Intervals of 2nds, 6ths and 7ths also come in major or minor sizes, but it's the difference in sound between the minor and major 3rd which is probably the most important interval difference in western music. When we talk about "major = happy" and "minor = sad", it's the effect of the 3rd interval we're talking about. The 3rd is what gives major and minor chords and major and minor scales their names. (The scales contain mixtures of other intervals but it's the 3rd that gives them their main character.)
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, and how can knowing the root notes of a scale or chord benefit me?
The root is the note a chord (or scale if you use the term loosely) is named after. What matters is not really the theory, but being able to find those notes on your instrument. Eg. it's easy enough to know that the root of an Em chord is E! But can you find all the E notes on your fretboard? Can you build an Em chord (or E minor scale) anywhere on the fretboard?
E is generally the "home note" in an E or Em chord. It will be the "base" note (and usually also the "bass" note ), the most obvious or least expressive note to play. In an E major or minor scale, it's the note that will sound most "final", so if you end phrases or licks on E it will sound like putting the period on a sentence. Of course, you don't always want a phrase to sound final, which is why you might end on a different note. And if you want a more expressive note to play on a chord, you'd play a note other than the root: maybe the 3rd or 5th (which each have their own characters), or maybe something stronger such as a 7th, 6th or 9th.
This is why knowing all those notes matters. Knowing the theoretical terms matters less (unless you want to talk about them) than knowing their sounds and how to find them.
Last edited by jongtr at Jan 4, 2017,
Ouri2011 Obviously, listening to what else is going on. There are a lot of different aspects that contribute to improvisation. Two things that are really important

1/ rhythmic awareness ... where you start and stop phrases, where you place notes in time for emphasis or de-emphasis (the latter for example if you're playing notes that clash with the backing). I made a short "lesson" for a mate of mine on soundcloud, who was asking about using "chromaticism", which draws on this awareness. The playing is very simple there. https://soundcloud.com/jerry-kramskoy-1/tips-for-using-chromaticism. (2m:22sec for actual chromaticism, and earlier for on-.off-bear stuff)

Also, learning how to mix up long and short notes, with triplets etc, and use if syncopation ... lot of mileage here, even if you don't want to get into music theory.

2/ chord knowledge (different chord types) and chord tones.