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#1
Learning Music Theory- The Beginning
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Table of Contents:

1.0- Introduction
1.1- Where to start?
1.2- The first 10 things to learn

2.0- What Intervals and Steps are
2.1- Interval guide
2.2- Steps
2.3- Tones and Semi-tones

3.0- Understanding the Chromatic scale

4.0- The major scale
4.1- Triads

5.0- The Circle of Fifths and Key Signatures Introduction
5.1- The Circle of Fifths
5.2- Key Signatures- How they work

6.0- Chord Construction
6.1- Extending
6.2- Altering
6.3- Suspended Chords
6.4- Inversions

7.0- The meaning of 'Diatonic' and what it does
7.1- Diatonic in chords
7.2- Diatonic in scales
7.3- E# and B# DO exist

8.0- Finding out what chords are in what key

9.0- Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor, Melodic Minor scales Introduction
9.1- Natural Minor Scale
9.2- Harmonic Minor Scale
9.3.0- Melodic Minor Ascending
9.3.1- Melodic Minor Descending
9.4- What chords do these scales go with?

10.0- The Modes of the Major scale Introduction
10.1- Using the intervals
10.2- Using the Steps
10.3- Using the modes over chords

11.0- Applying #1-9 on the guitar Introduction
11.1- Applying 'What Intervals and Steps are'
11.2- Applying 'Understanding the Chromatic Scale'
11.3- Applying 'The major scale and Triads'
11.4- Applying 'Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales'
11.5- Applying 'The Modes of the Major scale'

12.x- Extras
12.x- Helpful links
12.x- What is "Lydian sharp 11 dominant 9" anyways?
12.x- Updates

1.0- Introduction
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So you've seen people talking their heads off about "Lydian sharp 11 dominant 9" and you have no idea what they're talking about, or maybe you're interested in starting to learn music theory. Well, it's a great choice to come this route, as theory can make your music excel to great heights, and it lets you know what you're doing, and why. I chose to learn music theory because I wasn't much of a song writer and wanted my music to sound good. Plus, on the forums on this site, I would visit "Musicians Talk" and not know what was going on. So I've learned quite a bit and have prepared this list for you, someone new to music theory, or someone who needs a nice refresher. In this lesson, you will need no knowledge of previous theory, but you will need to know that the notes only go to G and what sharps (#) and flats (b) are. Also keep in mind you might see parts from other lesson I have written, as I can copy from them all I want, but if I didn?t write the lesson, I will link to it. Have fun!

1.1- Where to start?
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Since I am an avid believer of not using steps, except for the major scale, you are going to have to learn what intervals are, and what steps are. Once you have learned how to get the major scale, all the #9, and b7 will come into the clear and become understandable. The major scale is the basis of which pretty much all chords and scales are derived from. If you've ever heard "1 3 5" or "1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1" you will know that those 'formulas' are in relation to the major scale.

1.2- The first 10 things to learn
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This is a list for easy reference, and everything is explained down the in this article. 1, being the first thing to learn, etc...

1. What Intervals and Steps are
2. Understanding the Chromatic Scale
3. The major scale
4. The Circle of Fifths and Key signatures.
5. Chord Construction
6. The meaning of 'Diatonic' and what it does
7. Finding out what chords are in what key
8. Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales
9. The Modes of the Major scale
10.Applying 1-9 on the guitar

I will go into each and every one of these so you, the beginner can understand them.

2.0- What Intervals and Steps are
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First, I'll start with intervals and steps, as they are critical in learning how everything works, and they help you understand the major scale, and almost everything on this list.

And interval is the space between one note and another. When you see 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1, those are intervals. Learning intervals is very important when learning everything in this article, because I dislike steps. I will get into that more in the steps section.

2.1- Interval guide
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This is an easy reference chart to look at for naming intervals. This example is in the key of C, for simplicity, but can be applied to any root note to find the intervals of that key. Look past the dots (periods......) they are used because the spacing in the lessons page forces you to not use consecutive spaces.

Interval....Name...................Note.(In C)

...1........Unison (root note).......C........
..b2........Minor Second.............Db.......
...2........Major Second.............D........
..#2........Sharp Second.............D#.......
..b3........Minor Third..............Eb.......
...3........Major Third..............E........
...4........Perfect Fourth...........F........
..#4........Augmented Fourth.........F#.......
..b5........Diminished Fifth.........Gb.......
...5........Perfect Fifth............G........
..#5........Augmented Fifth..........G#.......
..b6........Minor Sixth..............Ab.......
...6........Major Sixth..............A........
..#6........Sharp Sixth..............A#.......
.bb7........Diminished Seventh.......A........
..b7........Minor Seventh............Bb.......
...7........Major Seventh............B........
...8........Unison (Octave higher)...C........
..b9........Minor Ninth..............Db.......
...9........Major Ninth..............D........
..#9........Sharp Ninth..............D#.......

etc...

The intervals repeat, where 2 = 9, 3 = 10, 4 = 11, etc... Notice that you're adding 7 to get the octave higher interval. For those who don?t know what an octave is: An octave is the same exact note only played higher. Ex. Middle C on a piano, and the next C, going higher are AN OCTAVE APART. Just like b9 is an octave higher than b2.

When dealing with intervalic inversions (more on that later, this needs to be said in the interval seciton) you need to know a couple things. You have 4 perfect intervals. Unison, Fourth, Fifth, and Octave. A perfect interval inverts to a perfect interval, and when you ad the interval numbers together, you will always get 9. So if you know a P4 inverts to another perfect interval, you know (9-4 = 5, P inverts to P) so a P4 inverts to a P5. Same thing with unison. Unison inverts to the octave. The other intervals (2, 3, 6, 7) are either minor or major, and a major interval inverts to a minor one, and vise versa. So with your formula, you can find that a minor third inverts to a major sixth (3 + 6 = 9). Then an augmented interval inverts to a diminished interval. A perfect interval goes right to diminished when its flattened, and all intervals go right to augmented when sharpenned.

Heres a chart for your inversions.

P1 - P8
m2 - M7
M2 - m7
m3 - M6
M3 - m6
P4 - P5
A4 - D5

D7 - A2

P = Perfect
m = Minor
M = Major
D = Diminished
A = Augmented

Some intervals aren?t used as much as others, but still exist. b10 is still an acceptable name, but will more commonly be call #9. 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths are used more often than their enharmonic (Enharmonic- Same note; different name) siblings.

2.2- Steps, 2.3- Tones and Semi-tones
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Steps. These are what many beginners use to form scales and the such, but here?s what I'm going to do. I'll explain the steps and show you how to use them, but it?s up to you whether you use steps or intervals. A choice!

Steps can identify how far two notes are apart and they can (if you must) form scales.

There are two common types of steps. A whole step and a half step. A whole step (Indicated by the letter 'W') which is two frets. E - F# is a whole step. I've seen people who think E-F is a whole step. It is not. Two frets! This makes a half step self explanatory. Its one fret. E-F, G-G# and half steps apart.

Right now steps might seem a little pointless but they play a big part in the next section...

Tones and semitones are the same as steps, just with a different name. I use steps throughout, but you can think of them as tones troughout

T = Tone = Whole step
S = Semitone = Half Step

3.0- Understanding the Chromatic scale
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The Chromatic is very simple and easy to understand but it is important and it's very helpful to know. It makes it a breeze to memorize the notes on the fret board, and just know notes in general.

The Chromatic scale is a series of 12 notes starting from any note (doesn?t matter which one... You could use D# for all I care) and going up by half steps. Ex. Playing any open string, and preceding to play each note, going up by one fret each time will give you a chromatic scale. But... There?s a catch! Not every note has a sharp/flat between them. This applies to all the notes except between B - C and E - F. There is nothing between B - C and E - F.

Your chromatic scale (in C) is:

C C#/Db D D#/Eb E F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B C

Remember the enharmonic notes! D# is enharmonic to Eb. It is indicated with a '/'.

Know it inside and out, as you should. Very important stuff. As short of a section this takes, it is just as important as the others.
Last edited by slash_pwns at Jul 1, 2005,
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#2
4.0- The Major Scale
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Possible the most important thing here. Everything from chords to scales is derived from the major scale. You can even use the major scale when soloing and writing, as it?s a normal scale too. It's just more important

The formula, in steps for the major scale is W W H W W W H. You apply that in any key (I'm using C again) and you get the major scale.

C...D...E...F...G...A...B...C...
..W...W...H...W...W...W...H.....

Notice how those notes fit right into the formula? Let?s try it with E.

E...F#...G#...A...B...C#...D#...E.
..W....W....H...W...W....W....H...

Apply that to any note you want to find its major scale.

You must know this. Memorize the WWHWWWH however you want, and once you know the major scales (Wait for Circle Of Fifths, it helps!) everything is dramatically easier.

4.1- Triads
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Triads are three note chords. I'm going to slip this in before chord construction while you're hot of the press of the major scale. I'll also teach you the way to make chords with intervals (as that how they're done)

There are 4 types of triads. Major, Minor, Augmented, Diminished. They are each different in formation and sound different. Four different formulas... Easy to remember, ok?

Major- 1 3 5

Minor- 1 b3 5

Augmented- 1 3 #5

Diminished- 1 b3 b5
***
Major triads are unaltered. You take the first, third and fifth notes of the major scale. The major chord you want (F, for example) is the scale you use. F uses F major Scale, C uses C major scale, etc... In C you have C E G, in F you have F A C, and so on. Another way to say this is "Root, Major Third, and Perfect Fifth"

Minor Triads are like the major triads, in that you do the same thing to form them except you lower the third by one half step. In C you get C Eb G, E is E G B, and so on. Another way to say it is "Root, Minor Third, and Perfect Fifth"

Augmented Triads follow the same rule for creating them. You always use the major scale to make chords. Always. Same as the major triad, but you're raising the fifth by a half step. In C, C E G#, A is A C# E#. Augmented Triads can be said as "Root, Major Third, and Augmented Fifth". Augmented triads are stacked major thirds.

Diminished Triads, like all the other ones are based off the major scale. You are lowering the third AND the fifth in the formula. In C it is C Eb Gb, A is A C Eb. Diminished Triads are "Root, Minor Third, and Diminished Fifth". Remember how I said Augmented Triads were stacked major thirds? Well, diminished triads are stacked minor thirds. This knowledge will come in handy in the chord construction section.

5.0- The Circle Of Fifths and Key Signatures Introduction
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The Circle of fifths (Short form - Co5) is a tool to help you with major scales and Key Signatures. In this section I'll show you the Co5, how it works, the actual circle, and I?ll move on to key signatures, explaining what they are and what they do.

The Co5 is a must know for all theory beginners because it helps you identify major scales, and it becomes easy to play in key.

5.1- The Circle of Fifths
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The Co5 is your tool to find what notes are in what key. This is very useful to me and many other people, but if you don?t want to use it, and can remember all the major scales another way, that?s fine. As long as you know the info it?s all good.

The circle of fifths is a circle with each note being a perfect fifth away from the note to its clockwise neighbour. The circle of fifths is this:

.......C........
...G.......F....
.D...........Bb.
A.............Eb
.E...........Ab.
...B.......Db...
.....F#/Gb......

Notice how G is a perfect fifth from C, B is from E, etc... You don?t really have to memorize this but it does help. If you can picture a fifth interval in your head (think power chords) then this isn?t hard to memorize at all.

Starting at the top, at C there are no sharps or flats. As you turn clockwise (To F) you add 1 flat to the key signature, until you get to Gb. Same with going to G. You add one sharp to the key signature. How do you know what sharp or flat to add? Well, here is the order:

F C G D A E B

Sharps to the left, and flats to the right. So if we know D has two sharps, then we look at the line here... F# and C# are the sharps in the key of D. Now take Eb. We know from the Co5 that it has 3 flats, and the line tells us the first 3 flats are B, E and A. So we know Eb had Bb, Eb, and Ab in it. This is what helps you will the major scales. Since we know D has F# and C#, we then know D major scale is D E F# G A B C# D. In Eb, we know it would be Eb F G Ab Bb C D Eb. You can do this for every key. Take any note off there, find how many flats or sharps it has, then look at the line to see what flats or sharps it has. That way you can find the major scale of any key.

But what about A#, and C#, etc...? Look for the enharmonic notes. C# = Db, etc...

What about minor keys you ask? Here?s a simple trick: Look at the circle side ways, starting from A. A is the relative minor to C. Here?s the minor key Co5:

.......A.......
...E.......D...
.B...........G.
F#............C
.Db..........F.
...Ab......Bb..
.......Eb......

Same rules apply. Dm has 1 flat, and it is B, so we know Dm scale is D E F G A Bb C D. More on minor scales later.

5.2- Key Signatures- How they work
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Key signatures make reading music much easier, and they tell what key the song is in. Key signatures help when composing pieces also.

In your key signature say you have a Bb, and an Eb. From Co5 you know that?s the key of Bb major. All notes throughout the piece that are B and E are to be played as Bb and Eb. This makes writing music easier, so you don?t have to use so many accidentals (accidentals- sharps and flats). You won?t find key signatures so much on conventional TAB, but on sheet music and Power Tabs, and even Guitar One transcriptions there are key signatures.

So, with your Bb and Eb in the key signature, all B's and E's are to be played as Bb and Eb throughout, unless there is a natural sign (Google the natural sign- I can?t type it).

With Co5, you know what flats are in what key signature. Here?s a list, with both sharps and flats, for easy reference.

C .major- No flats/sharps
G .major- F#
D .major- F# C#
A .major- F# C# G#
E .major- F# C# G# D#
B .major- F# C# G# D# A#
F# major- F# C# G# D# A# E#
C# major- F# C# G# D# A# E# B#
*****************************
C .major- No flats/sharps
F .major- Bb
Bb major- Bb Eb
Eb major- Bb Eb Ab
Ab major- Bb Eb Ab Db
Db major- Bb Eb Ab Db Gb
Gb major- Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb
Cb major- Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb

6.0- Chord Construction
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Here?s how you make chords. Chord construction is very important is you've ever wanted to make a chord, or learn more chords and not known how. Let?s get right into it.

Since you already know your 4 triads:

Major- 1 3 5

Minor- 1 b3 5

Augmented- 1 3 #5

Diminished- 1 b3 b5

That?s great. Because that is the beginning of chord construction. You already know the basics of it, but I'll teach you how to alter them and extend them to get the chords you want for your own playing.

6.1- Extending
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This how you can make other chords that are different from your triads. All you really do is extend your triads in this section, and then we'll alter them in the next section.

I'll give you some formulas for extended chords here.

_7 (dominant 7th): 1 3 5 b7

maj7 (major 7th): 1 3 5 7

m7 (minor 7th): 1 b3 5 b7

Those are your 3 most common extensions, and they can go even farther, but hers some examples.

C7: C E G Bb

Cmaj7: C E G B

Cm7: C Eb G Bb

Now we can extend those to 9, 11, and 13. You must have a 7th degree in the scale to call it _maj9, or _11, because the 7th tone is what 'supports' the further extensions. Without the 7th degree (b7, or 7) your 9, 11, or 13 degrees become an 'add chord'... Add chords explained in the next section!

_9 : 1 3 5 b7 9
_11: 1 3 5 b7 (9) 11
_13: 1 3 5 b7 (9) (11) 13

The numbers in brackets represent the optional notes. You can still have G13 without the 9 and 11. Also, every chord where the fifth is unaltered, or needed, it can be omitted.

_maj9 : 1 3 5 7 9
_maj11: 1 3 5 7 (9) 11
_maj13: 1 3 5 7 (9) (11) 13

_m9 : 1 b3 5 b7 9
_m11: 1 b3 5 b7 (9) 11
_m13: 1 b3 5 b7 (9) (11) 13

What about the diminished and augmented triads? Can you extend them too? Yes.

_°7 (° = dim): 1 b3 b5 bb7. These notes are all a minor third away from each other, until you extend more.
_°9 : 1 b3 b5 bb7 9
_°11: 1 b3 b5 bb7 (9) 11
_°13: 1 b3 b5 bb7 (9) (11) 13

_+7 (+ = aug): 1 3 #5 b7
_+9 : 1 3 #5 b7 9
_+11: 1 3 #5 b7 (9) 11
_+13: 1 3 #5 b7 (9) (11) 13

Remember... Those are all in relation to the major scale, and the 9 is enharmonic to the 2, etc... They don?t have to be an octave higher, because you shouldn?t name a chord _7(add2) because the 2nd is better named as a 9, making _9.
Last edited by slash_pwns at Jun 27, 2005,
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#3
6.2- Altering
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This is how you can make your chords suit your needs, and also in this section as well as altering, I'll show you some other extended chords that could be considered 'altered'.

Most alterations explain themselves. If the name says Em7b5, then you know it?s an Em7, with a b5. The construction for that would be 1 b3 b5 b7. some common alterations you'll see are:

b5
#5
b6
b9
#9
#11
b13

With those you can produce chords like E7#9, Fmaj7(#11), Cmaj7#5, Bm7(b9), etc... But remember if your alteration is a b5, your formula changes to 1 3 b5, not 1 3 5 b5.

Some not so common chords that can still sound good.

_m/maj7 (aka m/M7, its minor/major seventh. A minor triad with major seventh) 1 b3 5 7
_m7b5 (It looks altered, and it is, but its best name is _half diminished, or ø 1 b3 b5 b7.

Use alterations as you please, but remember, they're probably going to put you out of key.

Another part in altering- add chords. When you see Cadd9 or C(9) that is an add chord. Not to be confused with a dominant chord, the note is in (brackets).

You can add:

2...9
4..11
6..13

They are enharmonic, remember!

6.3- Suspended Chords
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Suspended chords are neither minor nor major. Suspended means you take the 3rd out and replace it with a 2nd or a 4th. There are 3 common types of suspended chords:

_sus2: 1 2 5
_sus4: 1 4 5
_sus (aka _7sus4): 1 4 5 b7

You can do crazy things, like _9sus2sus4, which would leave you with 1 2 4 5 b7 9, but you have to use common since to figure those out. Those chords will have a better name, if you look into the notes. C9sus2sus4 is better named as Gm11.

Not much to say about these, but remember they are chords too, just they aren?t minor, or major.

6.4- Inversions
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Inversions are slighter harder than what we've been doing, but are easy remember. Inversion means that you don't use the root, or the 1 as the bass note of the chord. For instance C/E can be labeled differently.

When working with inversions its good to know the intervals of the chords already. A First Inversion is when the 3rd of the chord is the bass note. C, with the base note E (or C/E) can be called C, in the first inversion. When the 5th tone is the bass note, we have a second inversion. C/G is C in the second inversion. When the 7th tone is the bass note, we have a third inversion. Guess what happens when the 9th tone is the bass note? Fourth inversion.

C (first inversion): E G C
C (2nd inversion): G C E
C7 (3rd inversion): Bb C E G

etc...

7.0- The meaning of 'Diatonic' and what it does
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'Diatonic' means that in a 7 tone scale, such as the major scale, you use each note (A-G, with a sharp or flat) only once. That?s why you don?t see C major scale as C D Fb F G A B B#. Diatonic also means you follow the formula. In a °7 chord the formula is 1 b3 b5 bb7. The tones (in C) are C Eb Gb Bbb. That is diatonic. You don?t have C D# F# A, because that doesn?t follow the formula. Sure, it has the same sound and you can't tell the difference without knowing, but it helps you organize tones, and help you figure out a chord or a scale without having much trouble.

7.1- Diatonic in Chords
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As explained above, diatonic formulas apply to chords. If it says 1 3 5, then you're using the 1, 3 and the 5, not the 1, 3 and the bb6. Chords are given specific formulas for a reason! So use 'em. It'll help you out down the road and organize your thoughts.

7.2- Diatonic is Scales
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Yes! It's everywhere! You look at the scale formula (Again, the formula is there for a reason), say its 1 b3 #5 b7 (random) then you have (in C) C Eb G# Bb, not C D# G# A#, or any of the like. There for a reason. Using diatonic in scales is very important when trying to make your own scales, and finding out what one is.

As you can tell from this section, I'm a fan of diatonic stuff. You should be too

7.3- E# and B# DO exist!
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C'mon, you couldn?t have though they didn?t exist. They are perfectly valid notes, and are common place in scales. When you were reading the Co5 part and wondered what I was doing with the E# and B#... Well, they are used for diatonic purposes. Take the C# major scale for example: C# D# E# F# G# A# B# C#. You can?t put C# D# F F# G# A# C C#, because it is not diatonic!

8.0- Finding out What Chords are in What Key
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This Lesson (http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/chords/what_chords_are_in_what_key_and_why.html) Is all about finding out what chords fit into what key. In this lesson the author (SilentDeftone) tells you that finding the diatonic triads in each key will tell what chords are in what key. This is true, but I'm going to expand on 'diatonic' here. Diatonic can also mean that a specific piece fits into one key exactly. Example, a song that uses the notes A F# G E C fits diatonically into the key of Em, or G major. Read through that lesson as it explains this section to a great extent, but since I actually have to do something, here is a list of universal formulas for chords and extensions. This is what you get if you go through that lesson all the way. In the key of C:

Cmaj7
Dm7
Em7
Fmaj7
G7
Am7
Bm7b5

And beyond...

Cmaj9
Dm9
Em7(b9)
Fmaj9
G9
Am9
Bm7(b5, b9)

Further:

Cmaj11
Dm11
Em11(b9)
Fmaj9(#11)
G11
Am11
Bm11(b5, b9)

And to 13ths!

Cmaj13
Dm13
Em11(b9, b13)
Fmaj13(#11)
G13
Am13
Bm11(b5, b9, b13)

9.0- Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor, Melodic Minor scales Introduction
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These new scales are all minor scales. They sound different from the major scale that you already know in that they have a minor tonality. They sound darker and can be used in more of a rock context. The natural minor scale is the most commonly used in rock, etc... and is probably the easiest to play. Harmonic minor is my personal favourite scale and is rather different. It can sound classical, eastern, or whatever. Yngwie Malmsteen (Shredder... Check out some of his music) is even known to use this scale a lot. Melodic minor is the least common from what I've seen, but it is still awesome. It can be used in jazz, or even in place of the major scale, for a little dissonance.

9.1- Natural minor scale
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This scale is more commonly called the 'minor scale' but I find it helpful to call it the natural minor scale, because somewhere in history way back, 'minor' could mean any of the 3 minor scales here... or something like that.

The formula for the minor scale is 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1. The formulas for scales are the same as chords as chords, in the way that they are compared to the major scale. If 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 is the major scale, without any alterations, then 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1 has a lowered 3rd (Every minor scale has a b3. Thats what makes it minor), sixth and seventh. So you can apply this formula to any key... I'll use C for example.

..C major: C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

..C minor: C D Eb F G Ab Bb C
Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

See the pattern? Apply that to any key you want! In A, for example.

..A major: A B C# D E F# G# A
Intervals: 1 2 3 .4 5 6 .7 .1

..A minor: A B C .D E .F G .A
Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

Any major scale you apply that to will get you the minor scale (for that key)

For you step loving people, here?s the minor scale in steps.

W H W W H W W

In A:

A B C D E F G A
W H W W H W W

etc...
Last edited by slash_pwns at Jun 27, 2005,
slash_pwns
I'm baaaaaack
Join date: Oct 2004
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#4
9.2- Harmonic Minor scale
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This is my personal favourite scale. It has a classical vibe about it, and can sound very eastern. It all depends on how you use it. Remember, you don?t use anything until you know all this! There is a specific section for applying these ideas to guitar!

Here?s your Harmonic minor formula: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 1. Not very different from the natural minor is it? Only the 7th is brought back up to a major seventh, from a minor one. The b6 - 7 is a very cool interval. It gives you a nice eastern vibe, and in the steps watch out!

Applying it to C:

..C major: C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

C Harm. Minor: C D Eb F G Ab B C
....Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 1

By now, you're not completely new to theory, so you can apply it to any major scale you want, and do it for yourself. You learn much better when you see the results for yourself.

For steps, I have to introduce a new step! It?s the WH step. It?s a whole step AND a half step. Or a wholehalf step!

Harmonic Minor: W H W W H WH H

C D Eb F G Ab .B C
W H .W W H .WH H

Play around with that. See how you like it.

9.3.0- Melodic Minor- Ascending
______________________________________________________________
The melodic minor is really two scales. The reason- I don?t know... I think I might have at one time. Another thing to do with ancient times, and the such. This is the ascending version. Next section (I've made them sub sections, if you notices I put an extra number for the table of contents :p) is the descending melodic minor. The melodic minor isn?t always melodic. You can make it sound horrible, but it?s at your own disposal.

You melodic minor formula: 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 1. Very simple one here... Just lower the third.

C major..: C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

C Mel. Minor: C D Eb F G A B C
Intervals...: 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 1

This scale is rather simple... And now on to the descending melodic minor!

Here are your steps: W H W W W W H.

9.3.1- Melodic Minor- Descending
______________________________________________________________
I'll cut right to chase here.

Formula: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1. Hmm... Look familiar eh? Well, that?s because it is. The descending Melodic minor is the same as the natural minor scale. This acts as a leading tone, just going down. I have no idea why they are the same, but try not to name standard rock/metal licks that use the natural minor scale 'Descending melodic minor'. It?s not used very much in everyday stuff.

In C:

..C major: C D E F G A B C
Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

C Desc. Mel. Minor: C D Eb F G Ab Bb C
.........Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

Your step formula: W H W W H W W

9.4- What chords do these scales go with?
______________________________________________________________
It?s always nice to know what goes with what, isn?t it? Natural minor goes with some normal chords, but the melodic and harmonic minor fit into some different ones.

Natural minor- minor, m7, m9, m11, m11(b13). It fits well into minor chord progressions and works in almost any style of music. You'll find this scale mostly in metal, rock, and it fits over power chords in a rock/metal song. Ex. Using each root's minor scale in a G5 D5 E5 A5 progression works in a rock scenario.

Harmonic minor- this can go with m/maj7 chords, because of the b3 and major 7th. This doesn?t quite fit a lot of chords perfectly, but is still applicable in place where the minor scale would be used. If you use a E5 F5 G5 E5 progression (key of Am) you can change it to suit the (A) harmonic minor, by making it E5 F5 G#5 E5.

Melodic Minor- Pretty much the same as harmonic minor, but you can use it over major chords if you want, because its construction is so close to a major scale. You'll get some clashing with the b3 over a 3, but it can create a jazzy sound. A chord with tones 1 b3 3 5 b7 is better suited to be called 1 3 5 b7 #9, a _7#9 chord. You can fit it to m/maj7 chords as well.

10.0- Modes of the Major scale Introduction
______________________________________________________________
Modes are a quite a challenge for most people, from what I've seen. They really aren?t that hard, and I'm going to do 2 different sections for these. One for intervals (my way) and one with steps (different way). The intervals will be from my lesson "Modes with Mode dictionary", which as it says in the title, has a mode 'dictionary'. All the modes in for all the major scales. Choose which way (intervals or steps) you like best and go for that. I find steps hinder your ability to recall the formula right away... So you aren?t saying, "Was it WWHWWWH or WHWWWHW?" while the intervals have different formulas for each, and will help you down the road when you want to find the modes of other scales, like the harmonic minor, or melodic minor.

10.1- Using the Intervals
___________________________________________________________
Here?s how we go with the intervals. I of course recommend this method, but do what suits you better, and remember you can always change your mind and come back to the other way.

A mode is just an alteration of a major scale. Here are the names of all 7 modes, and the formulas for them:

Ionian - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

Dorian - 1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7 1

Phrygian - 1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

Lydian - 1 2 3 #4 5 6 7 1

Mixolydian - 1 2 3 4 5 6 b7 1

Aeolian - 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

Locrian - 1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7 1

You remember how to get the scales, so you can use C as your example.

Ionian- C D E F G A B C. Ionian mode is also the major scale. There?s one mode you know already! Pronounce (EYE-OWN-EE-IN)

Dorian- C D Eb F G A Bb C. Dorian mode is very good for jazz, and is a minor mode. Pronounce (DORE-EE-IN)

Phrygian- C Db Eb F G Ab Bb C. Phrygian is rather Spanish sounding and is a minor mode. Pronounce (FRIJ-EE-IN)

Lydian- C D E F# G A B C. This is the closest mode to the major scale, it is a major mode. Pronounce (LID-EE-IN)

Mixolydian- C D E F G A Bb C. This on is also close to the major scale, kind of bluesy, and is a major mode. Pronounce (MIX-O-LID-EE-IN)

Aeolian- C D Eb F G Ab Bb C. Also known as the minor scale (natural). Two modes you know! Pronounce (EH-O-LEE-IN)

Locrian- C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C. Very dark and evil sounding, this is a DIMINISHED scale. Pronounce (LOW-CREE-IN)

10.2- Using the steps
___________________________________________________________
Here?s how the steps work: See if you can find the pattern.

...........W W H W W W H W W H W W W H W W H W W W H W W H W W W H

....Ionian:W W H W W W H
....Dorian: .W H W W W H W
..Phrygian: . .H W W W H W W
....Lydian: . . .W W W H W W H
Mixolydian: . . . .W W H W W H W
...Aeolian: . . . . .W H W W H W W
...Locrian: . . . . . .H W W H W W W

Those are your step formulas. Just take the first step and throw it on the end. The long one at the top is the major scale repeated.

You can think of a mode as playing a scale starting on a different note.

C D E F G A B C
W W H W W W H

C D Eb F G A Bb C
W H .W W W H .W

C Db Eb F G Ab Bb C
H .W .W W H .W .W

C D E F# G A B C
W W W .H W W H

C D E F G A Bb C
W W H W W H .W

C D Eb F G Ab Bb C
W H .W W H .W .W

C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
H .W .W H .W .W .W

10.3- Using the Modes over Chords
______________________________________________________________
Ionian- Ionian mode is just the name for the major scale. It has no alterations made to it. Play this mode over Major chords, Maj7, Maj6.

Dorian- Dorian mode has a flattened third and seventh (b3 and b7) making it ideal for m7 chords. You can also use Dorian mode for m6 chords. Dorian mode is often used in jazz styles.

Phrygian- Phrygian mode has a lowered second, third, sixth, and seventh. Phrygian has a Spanish feel to it so you can Play it over Spanish progressions or heavy metal/rock riffs with a b2.

Lydian- Lydian mode's only alteration is a raised fourth (#4) making it very close to the major scale. The #4 makes it a good chord to use for Maj7#11 chords, but can also be used over maj7 chords.

Mixolydian- The only alteration in Mixolydian mode is the lowered seventh (b7). This makes it perfect for dominant 7th chords. This mode can be used in blues, jazz or even country.

Aeolian- Aeolian mode, a.k.a. the minor scale has a b3, b6 and b7. (All minor scales have a b3). Aeolian mode works over minor chords, and can be used as a substitute for Dorian mode, by using it over m7 chords.

Locrian- Locrian mode has a b2, b3, b5, b6 and b7. Locrian mode is very dark sounding. It fits a m7b5 chord perfectly.
Last edited by slash_pwns at Jun 27, 2005,
slash_pwns
I'm baaaaaack
Join date: Oct 2004
1,982 IQ
#5
11.0- Applying #1-9 on the guitar Introduction
___________________________________________________________
This is the section where you apply all your new knowledge to the guitar. I'll put in everything that I feel needs to be applied. The ones being left out are: Circle of Fifths, the meaning of 'diatonic', and finding what chords are in what key. You're going to need your guitar for this section! All these examples will be in TAB form.

11.1- Applying 'What Intervals and Steps are'
___________________________________________________________
First, I'll do intervals. All TAB examples are in standard tuning.

|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-1--|

In the key of E, E - F is a b2, or a minor second. All these interval examples are in E major.

|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-2--|

E-F# is a 2, or major second interval.

|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-3--|

E-G is a b3, or a minor third.

|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-4--|

E-G# is a 3, or major third.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-5--|

E-A is a 4, or major fourth.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-6--|

E-Bb is a b5, or diminished fifth.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-7--|

E-B is a 5, or a perfect fifth.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-8--|

E-C is a b6, or an minor sixth.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-9--|

E-C# is a 6, or a major sixth.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-10-|

E-D is a b7, or minor seventh.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-11-|

E-D# is a 7, or major seventh.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-12-|

E-E is an octave.

Now for steps.


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-1--|

E-F is a half step (H)


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-2--|

E-F# is a whole step (W)


|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|------|
|-0-3--|

E-G is a whole + half step (WH)

11.2- Applying 'Understanding the Chromatic Scale'
______________________________________________________________
So you know your chromatic scale, and how it works, but just to drive it home, here?s the chromatic scale in TAB:

|-------------------------------|
|-------------------------------|
|-------------------------------|
|-------------------------------|
|-------------------------------|
|-0-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12--|

That?s just one octave, starting on E, there is much more of it. Here it is played differently.

|----------------------------|
|----------------------------|
|----------------------------|
|---------------------0-1-2--|
|-----------0-1-2-3-4--------|
|-0-1-2-3-4------------------|

By now, you should fully understand the chromatic scale.

11.3- Applying 'The major scale and Triads'
______________________________________________________________
In this section I'm going to give you examples of the major scale, by TAB-ing it out in all the keys for you, and then examples of triads starting on strings 6, 5, 4 and 3.

Here are your major scales:

Ab (Ab Bb C Db Eb F G Ab):
|-----------------------------4--|
|-------------------------6-8----|
|-------------------5-6-8--------|
|-------------5-6-8--------------|
|-------4-6-8--------------------|
|-4-6-8--------------------------|

A (A B C# D E F# G# A):
|-----------------------------5--|
|-------------------------7-9----|
|-------------------6-7-9--------|
|-------------6-7-9--------------|
|-------5-7-9--------------------|
|-5-7-9--------------------------|

Bb (Bb C D Eb F G A Bb):
|----------------------------------6--|
|-----------------------------8-10----|
|----------------------7-8-10---------|
|---------------7-8-10----------------|
|--------6-8-10-----------------------|
|-6-8-10------------------------------|

B (B C# D# E F# G# A# B):
|----------------------------------7--|
|-----------------------------9-11----|
|----------------------8-9-11---------|
|---------------8-9-11----------------|
|--------7-9-11-----------------------|
|-7-9-11------------------------------|

C (C D E F G A B C):
|---------------------------------------8--|
|---------------------------------10-12----|
|-------------------------9-10-12----------|
|-----------------9-10-12------------------|
|---------8-10-12--------------------------|
|-8-10-12----------------------------------|

Db (Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Db):
|-----------------------------------------9--|
|-----------------------------------11-13----|
|--------------------------10-11-13----------|
|-----------------10-11-13-------------------|
|---------9-11-13----------------------------|
|-9-11-13------------------------------------|

D (D E F# G A B C# D):
|-------------------------------------------10--|
|-------------------------------------12-14-----|
|----------------------------11-12-14-----------|
|-------------------11-12-14--------------------|
|----------10-12-14-----------------------------|
|-10-12-14--------------------------------------|

Eb (Eb F G Ab Bb C D Eb):
|-------------------------------------------11--|
|-------------------------------------13-15-----|
|----------------------------12-13-15-----------|
|-------------------12-13-15--------------------|
|----------11-13-15-----------------------------|
|-11-13-15--------------------------------------|

E (E F# G# A B C# D# E):
|-----------------------------0--|
|-------------------------2-4----|
|-------------------1-2-4--------|
|-------------1-2-4--------------|
|-------0-2-4--------------------|
|-0-2-4--------------------------|

F (F G A Bb C D E F):
|-----------------------------1--|
|-------------------------3-5----|
|-------------------2-3-5--------|
|-------------2-3-5--------------|
|-------1-3-5--------------------|
|-1-3-5--------------------------|

Gb (Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F Gb):
|-----------------------------2--|
|-------------------------4-6----|
|-------------------3-4-6--------|
|-------------3-4-6--------------|
|-------2-4-6--------------------|
|-2-4-6--------------------------|

G (G A B C D E F# G):
|-----------------------------3--|
|-------------------------5-7----|
|-------------------4-5-7--------|
|-------------4-5-7--------------|
|-------3-5-7--------------------|
|-3-5-7--------------------------|

Triads: These triads are in root position. That means they are not inverted, but I trust you read the inversion section and can invert them, if such a time would come.

Major

R = Root
T = Major Third
F = Perfect Fifth

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
D|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
D|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
G|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|-T-|
G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

Minor:

R = Root
T = Minor Third
F = Perfect Fifth

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
D|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
A|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
D|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
G|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

Augmented:

R = Root
T = Major Third
F = Augmented Fifth

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
D|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|---|---|-F-|---|---|
D|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|-F-|---|
G|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|---|---|-F-|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|-T-|
G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

Diminished:

R = Root
T = Minor Third
F = Diminished Fifth

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|---|---|---|---|---|
D|-|-F-|---|---|---|---|
A|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|---|---|
G|-|-F-|---|---|---|---|
D|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|---|---|---|---|
B|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
G|-|---|---|-T-|---|---|
D|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

e|-|---|-F-|---|---|---|
B|-|---|---|---|-T-|---|
G|-|---|---|---|---|-R-|
D|-|---|---|---|---|---|
A|-|---|---|---|---|---|
E|-|---|---|---|---|---|

So there?s you basic triads, and combining those major scales and triads, I'll make you a nice mini solo!
Last edited by slash_pwns at Jul 10, 2005,
slash_pwns
I'm baaaaaack
Join date: Oct 2004
1,982 IQ
#6

         ~~           ~~~~~~~~           ~              ~                  ~
|-----7-10--10-7------8-|-(8)--8------------8---------|-------8-10-----------|
|---8------------8h10---|--------10-----------10------|-8--10------10-8s6--5-|
|-9---------------------|-----------10-9-7-------10-9-|----------------------|
|-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
|-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|
|-----------------------|-----------------------------|----------------------|


        ~                      ~~~~~
|---8-7-5---8-7---8-7-|---8-7-10b12----|
|-6-------6-----6-----|-6--------------|
|---------------------|----------------|
|---------------------|----------------|
|---------------------|----------------|
|---------------------|----------------|


|-10-8-7-10-8-7----------------------------------------------|
|---------------10-8----10-8---------------------------------|
|--------------------10------10-9-7----9-7-------------------|
|-----------------------------------10-----10-9-7----9-7-----|
|-------------------------------------------------10-----10--|
|------------------------------------------------------------|


|-----------------------------------------------7-8-10-8----|
|------------------------------------------8-10-------------|
|-----------------------------------7-9-10------------------|
|----------------------------7-9-10-------------------------|
|-8-7----8-7----------7-8-10--------------------------------|
|-----10-----10-8-7-8---------------------------------------|

That?s built completely off the C major scale and triads, in the key of C. You can even repeat it!

11.4- Applying 'Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales'
______________________________________________________________
This one will be broken down into three sections. One for Natural Minor, one for harmonic minor and one for melodic minor. And then I'll give you another mini solo!

Natural Minor:

First off, I'll give you a box pattern. I'm not a huge fan of these but they are good for beginners.

R = Root
o = other note (2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7)

e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
B|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|

From that you can find minor scales.

Em
|-----------------------------0-2-3--|
|-----------------------0-1-3--------|
|-------------------0-2--------------|
|-------------0-2-4------------------|
|-------0-2-3------------------------|
|-0-2-3------------------------------|
Am
|-----------------------------5-7-8--|
|-----------------------5-6-8--------|
|-------------------5-7--------------|
|-------------5-7-9------------------|
|-------5-7-8------------------------|
|-5-7-8------------------------------|

etc... Just follow the box pattern.

Harmonic Minor:

I'll just do the same thing. Box pattern and tabs.

e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
B|-|-O-|-O-|---|---|-O-|
G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|

E Harmonic Minor
|-----------------------------0-2-3--|
|-----------------------0-1-4--------|
|-------------------0-2--------------|
|-------------1-2-4------------------|
|-------0-2-3------------------------|
|-0-2-3------------------------------|

A Harmonic minor
|-----------------------------5-7-8--|
|-----------------------5-6-9--------|
|-------------------5-7--------------|
|-------------6-7-9------------------|
|-------5-7-8------------------------|
|-5-7-8------------------------------|

Melodic Minor:

e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
B|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|

E Melodic Minor
|-----------------------------0-2-3--|
|-----------------------0-2-4--------|
|-------------------0-2--------------|
|-------------1-2-4------------------|
|-------0-2-4------------------------|
|-0-2-3------------------------------|

A Melodic minor
|-----------------------------5-7-8--|
|-----------------------5-7-9--------|
|-------------------5-7--------------|
|-------------6-7-9------------------|
|-------5-7-9------------------------|
|-5-7-8------------------------------|

Now for the mini solo.

   4/4
    Gtr I
                             ~~
||--12h13p12--------------------------------12h13-16h17p16h17p16h17p|
||o----------15p13p12-----------------12h13-------------------------|
||--------------------14p13-----13h14-------------------------------|
||--------------------------15--------------------------------------|
||o-----------------------------------------------------------------|
||------------------------------------------------------------------|


|-16p13p12-------------12h13-16h17p16h17p16h17p16-13p12------------------------------|
|----------13p12h13h15----------------------------------15p13------------------------|
|-------------------------------------------------------------14p13------------------|
|-------------------------------------------------------------------14p12----14p12---|
|-------------------------------------------------------------------------14---------|
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|


                                               ~~
|---------------------------------------------12--17-16-17-13-17-16-----||
|----------------------------13-------13-0-15--------------------------o||
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------||
|-12h14p10h12h14p10h12h14h15----14h15-----------------------------------||
|----------------------------------------------------------------------o||
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------||.

11.5- Applying 'The Modes of the Major scale'
______________________________________________________________
Check out "Modes with Mode Dictionary" in the Lessons section, under scales for all the modes tabbed out. In this section I'll give you the box patterns for the modes so you can move them around.

Ionian.
e|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
B|-|---|---|-O-|---|-O-|
G|-|---|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|
D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|

Dorian.
e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
B|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|

Phrygian.
e|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
B|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
D|-|-O-|---|-R-|-O-|---|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
E|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|

Lydian.
e|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
B|-|---|---|-O-|---|-O-|
G|-|---|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|
D|-|---|-O-|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|---|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|

Mixolydian.
e|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
B|-|---|---|-O-|-O-|---|
G|-|---|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|
D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|-O-|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|---|-O-|

Aeolian.
e|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
B|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
G|-|-O-|---|-O-|---|---|
D|-|-O-|---|-R-|---|-O-|
A|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
E|-|-R-|---|-O-|-O-|---|

Locrian.
e|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
B|-|---|-O-|---|-O-|---|
G|-|-O-|---|-O-|-O-|---|
D|-|-O-|---|-R-|-O-|---|
A|-|-O-|-O-|---|-O-|---|
E|-|-R-|-O-|---|-O-|---|

No mini solo for this one, I'd just be repeating myself.

12.x- Extras
______________________________________________________________
This section is more of a fun thing than anything. There lesson is over, and this is to amuse myself and possibly you. In here I'll have an update section, to keep track of any updates that are made, if they happen, I'll also give you some helpful links so you can venture off into the music theory world. If this lesson goes over well with the 'public' then you can expect to see another one, but more advanced.

12.x- Helpful Links
______________________________________________________________

Ultimate Guitar (http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/)

Ultimate Guitar Lessons (http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/)

My Lessons (http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/search.php3?location=lessons&user=slash_pwns)

What chords are in what key and Why? (http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/chords/what_chords_are_in_what_key_and_why.html)

UG Forums (https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/forum/)

Musician Talk Forum (https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?s=&forumid=8)

12.x- 12.x- What is "Lydian sharp 11 dominant 9" anyways?
______________________________________________________________
In short, I'd call it this as a scale: 1 2 3 #4 5 6 b7 1, aka Lydian Dominant, and this a s a chord: 1 3 5 b7 9 #11, aka _9#11.

12.x- Updates
______________________________________________________________
To be updated

If you have any questions, PM me on the forums.

-slash_pwns
Last edited by slash_pwns at Jun 26, 2005,
The_Strat_Man
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#7
^ All of the tabs need to be cleaned up using the code feature. I just kinda' glanced through it, and it looks alright. I think extensions and chord constructions should be combined.
SilentDeftone
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Join date: Jul 2003
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#9
  • Learning Music Theory- The Beginning
  • 7.3- E# and B# DO exist
  • 12.x- Helpful Links

    Introduction
  • So you've seen people talking their heads off
  • maybe you're interested in?
  • your music excel to
  • learn music theory because
  • you will need no knowledge
  • if I didn't write

    1.1
  • chords and scales are derived from.

    2.0
  • I'll start with intervals

    2.1
  • You're missing bb7 - a diminished 7th I believe - in your intervals chart. Did you just copy https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/forum/showthread.php?s=&postid=3150253 ?
  • Some intervals aren't used as much as others, but still exist.
  • What chord has b10 in it?
  • often than their enharmonic

    2.2 & 2.3
  • but here's what I'm going to do.
  • but it's up to you whether you use
  • This makes a half step self explanatory.
  • you can think of them as tones throughout
  • I still think the chromatic scale should be taught before intervals. That intervals chart won't make any sense if they don't know the relation between C and Db!

    3.0
  • (doesn't matter which one...
  • But... There's a catch!

    4.0
  • Let's try it with E.

    4.1
  • Triads are three note chords.
  • while you're hot off the presses of the major scale.
  • (as that's how they're done)
  • Before going into formulas, I think you should clearly state that all chords are built in relation to the major scale. That is, every chord must be built off of its root note's major scale.
  • Four different formulas...

    5.0
  • I'll move on to key signatures

    5.1
  • and can remember all the major scales another way, that's fine. As long as you know the info it's all good.
  • away from the note to its clockwise neighbor.
  • You don't really have to memorize
  • in your head (think powerchords) then this isn't hard to memorize at all.
  • you add 1 flat to the key signature, until you get to Gb.
  • So we know Eb has Bb, Eb, and Ab in it.
  • what helps you with the major scales.
  • A is the relative minor to C.
  • so we know the Dm scale is D E F G A Bb C D.

    5.2
  • (Google the natural sign- I can't type it)
  • You already know your 4 triads:
  • That?s great, because that is the beginning

    6.1
  • All you really do is extend your triads in this section
  • They don?t have to be an octave higher, because you shouldn?t name a chord _7(add2) because the 2nd wasn?t the 9th. This is an awkward sentence IMO

    6.2
  • But remember if your alteration is a b5,

    6.3
  • You can do crazy things, like _sus2sus49, which would leave you with 1 2 4 5 b7 9, but you have to use common sense to figure those out. What are you talking about? Let's say we use C as a root there? C D F G Bb would be the notes of the chord. That's much better named as Gm11!

    6.4
  • Inversions are slighter harder than what we've been doing, but are easy remember. Inversion means that you don't use the root, or the 1 as the bass note of the chord. For instance C/E can be labeled differently. <--these are confusing sentences to me.
  • When working with inversions it's good to know
  • of the chord is the bass note. C, with the bass note E (or C/E) can be?

It said I had too many smilies.

-SD
Last edited by SilentDeftone at Jun 27, 2005,
slash_pwns
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#10
1. I didnt copy anything for this... That wasnt mine.

2. I'll put it into word and fix it up.

Returns in middle of sentence are from going from notepad to forums... Not like that in my original.

EDIT: 1st post editted

2nd editted

all updated
Last edited by slash_pwns at Jun 22, 2005,
SilentDeftone
UG God
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#12
^ Not done, some of those suggested corrections aren't corrected yet, like the sus2sus49 issue. Unless you don't plan on fixing those

Also I attempted to fix some of your spacing. Hope you don't mind.

-SD
slash_pwns
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#13
^I don't mind, it actually helped quite a bit, thanks.

I'll look through all your typos. The sus2sus49 thing is kinda dumb, and used as an example, I'll change it.
Freepower
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#14
*cough cough*

You do realise that people who have no idea where the notes are, or what intervals are already, will have NO understanding of anything else you're on about?

The piece of theory that helped me MOST, EVER was the FRET distances which were intervals. I mean, "minor third"? Wtf? Oh, thats three frets away? Great. Hey, wait, if the strings are FIVE frets apart, then i suddenly understand THIS chord...

A--5
E--7


And so understanding began..for me, at least.
SilentDeftone
UG God
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#16
I do think that you should put the Chromatic section before the intervals part; in fact for these 3 things I think it should go:

Chromatics & steps (tone and semitone)
Major scale - explain in terms of WWHWWWH and Co5/keys
Intervals
etc.

-SD
slash_pwns
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#17
But the entire point of having the intervals and steps first, is so that when the chromatic scale comes around, you know that they go up by a half step each time... Because you know what a half step is.

EDIT: Why Chromatic first, anyways?
SilentDeftone
UG God
Join date: Jul 2003
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#18
Because, intervals won't mean anything to someone who doesn't know the difference between C and D, its just a bunch of randomized numbers to them.

You'll tell them that C to Gb is a diminished 5th, how does that help them at all if they don't know what a flat is, much less how C is different from G?

But it IS your lesson, order it how you like dude I'm off to mow the lawn.

-SD
boothy
Legalize It!!!
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#20
wow, a lot of work there... I will post comments when I have brain power to work through it (when I'm not half asleep in other words )
"What business is it of yours what I do, read, buy, see, say, think, who I fuck, what I take into my body - as long as I do not harm another human being on this planet?"

Bill Hicks
R.I.P.

Freepower
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#21
You expect people to read from
2.0- What Intervals and Steps are

Through

2.1- Interval guide
2.2- Steps
2.3- Tones and Semi-tones

3.0- Understanding the Chromatic scale

4.0- The major scale
4.1- Triads

5.0- The Circle of Fifths and Key Signatures Introduction
5.1- The Circle of Fifths
5.2- Key Signatures- How they work

6.0- Chord Construction
6.1- Extending
6.2- Altering
6.3- Suspended Chords
6.4- Inversions

7.0- The meaning of 'Diatonic' and what it does
7.1- Diatonic in chords
7.2- Diatonic in scales
7.3- E# and B# DO exist

8.0- Finding out what chords are in what key

9.0- Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor, Melodic Minor scales Introduction
9.1- Natural Minor Scale
9.2- Harmonic Minor Scale
9.3.0- Melodic Minor Ascending
9.3.1- Melodic Minor Descending
9.4- What chords do these scales go with?

10.0- The Modes of the Major scale Introduction
10.1- Using the intervals
10.2- Using the Steps
10.3- Using the modes over chords

Till they get to 11.0. Now, dont get me wrong, im sure by section 11 they're ready to apply their new knowledge.

Actually, that was sarcasm. They will have NO idea what you're talking about and people will simply think theory is beyond them. Thats NOT good, obviously. Ffs, they'll have NO idea what you're on about till 11! NONE!

Whats the point in that?

It works in your head because you understand what the **** you're on about! These people DONT yet. Its the BEGINNING of music theory. So put section 11 first for gods sake!

Dont you understand? You're trying to teach the modes of the major scale to people who havent a clue what an interval is!

*Rant over.*
slash_pwns
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#22
^Yes, actually I do expect them to read it in full. This is not a joke in anyway, because its written to someone that wants to do it.

Its obviously going to be read by the serious people, and I put the playing section (I actually wasnt going to have one... This IS a theory lesson) at the end so that the reader knows the things that have been taught, and is ready to apply them. And someone whose been playing for 2 months isnt serious about theory, probably doesnt know what theory does anyways, but they can still look at the table of contents and pick out what they want to learn. Sure, it'll be hard because they didnt read the sections before, but its their choice.

People on a guitar site that want to read this will be serious about learning theory, meaning they're serious about guitar... I'm suprised you see it like that :\
Freepower
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#23
Look, why dont you call it "The basics of theory for serious people"?

Either you're aiming it at beginners and they need to be able to understand wtf is going on - ie, section 11 at the start, or else its all gibberish.

Or you're aiming it at serious people...who already understand 9/10ths of what you're saying.

If someone at 2 months looked at the table of contents, they'd just go "huh?" start at the intro, read a bit, realise that its all gibberish, and go away thinking "Boy, music theory's for geniuses, i could never do that!".

I dont care whats included, but please, even just to shut me up, make section 11 early on - what have you to lose? And i despair for the noobs...
slash_pwns
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#24
Have section 11 at the start? No. Its at the end for a reason, and its not moving. You dont do something without knowing how to do it...

This will be the discription: If you're serious about learning music theory, and how it applies to guitar, this lesson can help you . It covers the basics from intervals to modes.

EDIT: Just to shut you up? I respect your opinion, and I did consider it, but the point in this lesson is to learn the theory. Section 11 was a last minute (Last hour or two, more like it) add on.
SilentDeftone
UG God
Join date: Jul 2003
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#27
  • In a °7 chord the formula

    7.2
  • 7.2- Diatonic in Scales

    7.3
  • Well, they are used for diatonic purposes. Take the C# major scale

    8.0 (Capitalize titles if you want?)


  • 9.0
  • They sound darker and can be used in more of a rock context. - Not always, melodic minor is generally more commonly found in jazz, often as a replacement for the Aeolian mode. (according to Jazz Theory )

    9.1
  • The formulas for scales are the same as chords as chords. - FIX!
  • (Pretty much every minor scale has a b3. I can't think of any that don?t) - That's what makes it minor
  • You might want to fix your 'In A:' example, line up the W and Hs with spaces.

    9.2
  • Again line up your steps ^^^^

    9.3.0
  • The melodic minor isn?t always melodic. You can make it sound horrible, but it?s at your own disposal. - You can make any scale sound horrible, . The melodic minor happens to be one of the more consonant scales IMO.

    9.3.1
  • that use the natural minor scale (couldn't hurt to spell it out?)

    9.4
  • Natural minor- minor, m7, m9, m11, m13 - Sure about that m13?
  • Harmonic minor- no suggestion of plain old minor triads?
  • but you can use it over major chords if you want. - according to that logic you could use any minor scale over any major triad

    10.0
  • Choose which way (intervals or steps) you like best and go for that.

    10.2
  • Line up the steps?

    10.3 (capitalize title?)


  • 11.0
  • The ones being left out are: Circle of Fifths, the meaning of 'diatonic', and finding what chords are in what key.

    11.1
  • E-C is a #5, or an augmented fifth. No it's not, it's a b6? see 'meaning of diatonic'
  • E-E is unison, or an octave. Your example shows an octave, not unison

    11.3
  • You might want to mention that all those triads are in root position. If you go into 1st and 2nd inversions there's a bit more to it.

    The rest seems fine, I didn't check over your box diagrams, I trust they're fine.
The bold word is the one that needs fixing; use the search feature on your Notepad or browser to find the mistakes using the words around the fixed bold word. I'll hopefully put them in order for you.

FINISHED!

-SD
Last edited by SilentDeftone at Jul 10, 2005,
Corwinoid
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Join date: Nov 2004
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#29
I don't approve.
*show stopper*

Mmmm that felt almost as good as saying 'I object!' at a wedding...

Add something to section two about intervallic inversions; and the rules: Perfect-Perfect, Augmented-Dim, Minor-Major, both halves of the inversion added together will equal 9 (ie. P4 inverts to P5, 5+4 = 9); compounds don't invert.
Quote by les_kris
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Corwinoid
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#31
Lol, not that good, considering what I was telling you was to explain that, not just quote me.
Quote by les_kris
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The_Strat_Man
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#34
Originally posted by slash_pwns
I had never learned that stuff, so I don't know about it.


That's why man invented Google.

TheGimpMaster01
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#37
Originally posted by The_Strat_Man
^ All of the tabs need to be cleaned up using the code feature. I just kinda' glanced through it, and it looks alright. I think extensions and chord constructions should be combined.

you found something to complain about in that?!?!?!??!

(i'm impressed against my will with that lesson, so i'll shut up now)
Corwinoid
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#39
I'll sign off at this point, I suppose...

One more time through the spelechecker SD?
Quote by les_kris
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I'm not even God-like... I've officially usurped the Almighty's throne.
Click here to worship me.

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slash_620
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#40
for chord formation; could you write like

major-major 3rd+minor 3rd
minor-minor 3rd+major 4rd
augmented-major 3rd+major 3rd
diminished- minor 3rd+minor 3rd?

it helped me understand chords easier.
Need.New.Sig.