i have a couple of scales questions:

what scales should i learn other than the chromatic, major, minor, maj pentatonic, and minor pentatonic?

how do you know what modes are in each box of the scales (like in the pentatonic scale, i can locate the major and minor pentatonic scales, but then i dont know what the other scales, i think theyre modes, are and how to find them)

All of those scales will give you plenty to keep you busy.

maj pent & min pent = same notes in different keys
major & minor scale = same notes in different keys

As with diatonic scales, pentatonic scales would have 5 modes.
Each mode is just a root note that starts on a different scale note (degree).

For pentatonics the common modes are the major and minor. The 3 other modes,
I'm not entirely sure if they have names, but there's probably uses for them.

EDIT: Reading it back it might be a bit confusing. Diatonics have 7 modes. What
I meant was that pentatonic modes are derived in the same way.