#3
check out this site (he calls them harmonies) there are also lessons on modes, chords etc

http://www.marktiarra.com/music/guitar_lesson4.html
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#4
in the most basic of terms an interval is the distance between 2 notes..... heres the run down from your root to all the different positions available, we'll use E as your root note since it is the lowest note on a guitar and most commonly used key for rock guitar, this will be a bit long, so prepare yourself

E -> F or (tab) E--0--1--

is a minor 2nd

E -> F# or (tab) E--0--2--

is a major 2nd or often just called 2nd

E -> G or (tab) E--0--3--

is a minor 3rd

E -> G# or (tab) E--0--4--

is a major 3rd or often just called the 3rd

E -> A or (tab) E--0--5--

is a major/minor 4th, generally just called the 4th or sometimes perfect 4th

E -> A# or (tab) E--0--6--

is called either a #4 or b5

E -> B or (tab) E--0--7--

is a 5th, often called a perfect fifth

E -> C or (tab) E--0--8--

is a minor 6th

E -> C# or (tab) E--0--9--

is a major 6th

E -> D or (tab) E--0--10--

is a minor 7th

E -> D# or (tab) E--0--11--

is a major 7th

E -> E(octave) or (tab) E--0--12--

is called a 8th or sometimes referred to as a perfect 8th

here is the first part of your intervals instructions, more soon....