#1
Read first!:
This is the first part of 4 lessons I plan to write about modes. It needs a bit of work in some parts, and id appreciate any help with this. IE Lesson structure, Suggestions, grammar etc.
Thanks in advance,
Phil
------------------------------

Welcome all to my first installment covering modes In these few lessons, I hope to explain in detail what modes are, how they work and how they can be applied to music.

In this lesson, I assume you already know the basics of music theory. There are two things you must know before going onto modes. The first is the Major scale. This is very important, make sure you know it inside out and back to front! And also, you need to know about intervals.

Ready to learn about the awesomeness of modes!? Read on...

+--------------------------------

Contents

 [b]1.0[/b]    Enharmonics and Diatonics              Installment 1
 [b]2.0[/b]    Modes Defined                          Installment 1
   [b]2.1[/b]  Modes Feelings                         installment 1

 [b]3.0[/b]    Constructing Modes                     Installment 1
   [b]3.1[/b]  Example 1: Dorian Mode construction    Installment 1
   [b]3.2[/b]  Example 2: A# Phrygian Mode            Installment 1
   [b]3.3[/b]  List of Intervals                      Installment 1

 [b]4.0[/b]    Chords Over Modes                      Installment 2
 [b]5.0[/b]    Modal Chord Progressions               Installment 3
 [b]6.0[/b]    Harmonic and Melodic Minor Modes       Installment 4

+--------------------------------


1.0 - Enharmonically Speaking

Ok, before we go on, theres one thing you need to know. Enharmonics, and Diatonics.

A Definition for enharmonics means Two names for one meaning.
Ok, lets use an audible example. Play the 2nd fret of the Low E String. Hear that? It is a half step above F, and can be called F#. However, it is a half step below G and so it can also be called Gb. These are exactly the same thing.

Another example, the 1st fret of the B string. This is a C note. However, its also called B#.
Below, i have included a list of enharmonics, just for your knowledge:
A -> A#/Bb -> B/Cb -> B#/C -> C#/Db -> D -> D#/Eb -> E/Fb -> E#/F -> F#/Gb -> G -> G#/Ab

The next thing, is Diatonics. This means you need, in a 7 tone scale, each note used at least once.

For example, in the C Major scale, we use all the notes:
C D E F G A B C. This scale, is therefore, diatonically correct.

Lets use another example. The F# Major scale, but make it diatonically incorrect:
E Gb Ab A B Db Eb E
Why isnt this scale diatonically correct? Well look at it. Where is the F note and C note? Why has the A and E notes been used twice?!

This can easily be solved using enharmonics:
E F# G# A B C# D# E
Fb Gb Ab Bbb Cbb Db Eb Fb

These are both enharmonically and diatonically correct versions of the E (or Fb) Major scale.
this part (above) needs work doing to it

2.0 - Modes Defined

Modes are much like scales. They are a series of intervals, which with a scale key provide a series of pitches.
You can build modes of any scale. But for the time being, and to avoid confusion, I'll only be talking about modes of the major scale.

The difference between modes and scales, is that a mode comes from a scale. For example, the C Major scale has these notes:
C D E F G A B C

A Mode is basically, the exact same scale, but starting on a different note. Therefore, the first mode of the C Major scale

would be this:
D E F G A B C D

A good way to see how this works, is to look at the diagram of modes below. Each mode is derieved from the C Major scale.

C ionian:   C D E F G A B C
D dorian:     D E F G A B C D
E phrygian:     E F G A B C D E
F lydian:         F G A B C D E F
G mixolydian:       G A B C D E F G
A aeolian:            A B C D E F G A
B locrian:              B C D E F G A B

There are 7 different notes in the major scale. This means, we can create a total of 7 different modes from the major scale

alone. These modes are:
- Ionian
- Dorian
- Phrygian
- Lydian
- Mixolydian
- Aeolian
- Locrian


2.1 - Modes Feelings

Each mode of the major scale can create its own, individual sound. However, you can only accomplish this sound by learning the theory behind modes. So what do I mean, "individual sounds"?
Well, Each one of those 7 modes can, if used properly, sound distinctive. Guitarists use modes in to suit the feeling of the song they are trying to write. If they are trying to write a happy song, they'll use a certain mode, if they try to give the song a sad sound, they'll use another mode. And so on.


3.0 - Constructing Modes

This part of the lesson will either be very confusing, or very simple, although, when you understand how it works, and it suddenly clicks, it'll all make sense!

Ok, this is why, you need to know about the major scale and intervals.
Lets start with the basics.

We know each degree, or note, of the major scale is the root note of a mode.
Therefore, the first note of the Major scale, creates the first mode, which is Ionian.
The second note of the major scale creates the second mode, which is Dorian.
The third note of the major scale creates the third mode, which is Phrygian, and so on.

Lets start with the 1st degree of the major scale.
This creates the Ionian mode. But you might be thinking; "Well, if the root note of the major scale creates the Ionian mode, does that mean there's two names for one scale?!". The answer is yes.

The major scale, can also be called the Ionian mode. This is our starting scale, so give each note of the Major scale an interval. In these examples, i will be using the C Major scale.

1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1    <-- Major scale intervals
C  D  E  F  G  A  B  C    <-- C Major scale

You should be familiar with this.


So, we've already constructed our first mode! Congratulations.


3.1 - Example 1: Dorian Mode Construction

Lets move onto the Dorian mode.
This is the second mode of the major scale, so we start on the second note / degree. Because we are using the C Major scale, the root note of the Dorian mode will be "D", and this is our D Dorian mode:
D E F G A B C D


The next step, is to compare the notes of the D Major scale with the D Dorian Mode:

1 2 3  4 5 6 7  1   <-- Major scale intervals
D E F# G A B C# D   <-- D Major Scale

D E F  G A B C  D   <-- D Dorian Mode

There are two differences between the notes. In the Major scale, there is an F#, however, in the Dorian scale, its only a F.

Also, In the major scale, there is a C#, however, in the Dorian mode, there is a normal C.

So, how do we get the major scale to flatten its 3rd and 7th notes? by putting a flat (b) sign before its intervals:

1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1   <-- Major scale intervals
D  E  F# G  A  B  C# D   <-- D Major Scale

1  2  b3 4  5  6  b7 1   <-- Our new flattened 3rd and 7th intervals

|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
v  v  v  v  v  v  v  v

D  E  F  G  A  B  C  D   <-- D Dorian Mode



3.2 - Example 2: D Phrygian Mode Construction

Lets take a more harder one.
Our base will be the Bb Major scale.

1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1
Bb C  D  Eb F  G  A  Bb

We want to find out the intervals used in the Phrygian Scale.
So, the phrygian scale is the 3rd Major mode, so we find the 3rd note of our Bb Major scale. Its D, therefore, we will be using the D Phrygian mode.

D Phrygian:
D Eb F G A Bb C D

So, we have the notes for the D Phrygian scale, now we need to compare them to the D Major scale:

D  Eb F  G  A  Bb C  D    <-- D Phrygian Mode
D  E  F# G  A  B  C# D    <-- D Major scale


As you can see, there are a lot of differences. Lets start from the left and work to the right.

1) Both the D's match up, so there ok.
2) The second notes don't match up. Ones a Eb, and ones a E. Therefore, we need to flatten the second interval of the Major scale in order to fit it in with the Phrygian Mode.
3) The 3rd degrees don't match up either. In the Phrygian mode, there is a F and in the Major scale there is a F#. Therefore, we need to flatten the 3rd degree of the major scale as well, to make that F# into a F.
4) The 4th, and 5th degrees are both the same, so we don't need to worry about them.
5) The 6th and 7th degrees of each scale don't match either. We need to flatten the 6th and 7th degree major scale to fit into the phrygian mode.

Therefore, to sum it up, we need these intervals:

1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

If you apply these intervals to the D Major scale, you now have the D Phrygian mode.


If you use this process for each mode, you will eventually be able to work out every interval for every mode of the Major scale!


3.3 - List of intervals

Ionian Mode         1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1
Dorian Mode         1  2 b3  4  5  6 b7  1
Phrygian Mode       1 b2 b3  4  5 b6 b7  1
Lydian Mode         1  2  3 #4  5  6  7  1
Mixolydian Mode     1  2  3  4  5  6 b7  1
Aeolian Mode        1  2 b3  4  5 b6 b7  1
Locrian Mode        1 b2 b3  4 b5 b6 b7  1


This concludes part 1! Check back in a week for the next installment

Thanks to Elvenkindje for checking my music theory and some proof reading
Thanks to Matt_M_2002 for proof reading
Thanks to Glen'sHeroicAct for proof reading
Thanks to insolent for the mode diagram used in section 2.0
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#2
i think i saw 1 typo but its a good lesson. its explains things pretty clearly.
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#3
Good stuff mate...always good when someone takes time to explain their knowledge to others
#4
Thanks
I've gone through and checked all my spelling now (well I used google spell check ), it should be all correct
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#5
hey... the modes are all fine though i just cant get their names into my head...
i guess you havent gotten to this but most of the good rock and metal bands rarely stick to a mode or even follow a mode in their songs.. but they still sound good..
u hv nethin to say about that??

btw nice stuff... and u hv put it where ppl will READ it.. lol
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#6
Quote by kirk_tremonti

i guess you havent gotten to this but most of the good rock and metal bands rarely stick to a mode or even follow a mode in their songs.. but they still sound good..
u hv nethin to say about that??



Alter bridge use modes
Ahavo Rabo Taco Salad = Harmonic Minor
One day remains = Lydian ( I think )
Open your eyes = Ionian ( I think )
And that little lick he does between songs (live) on the high E string, tremonti uses the Phrygian Dominant scale i believe.
and so on

I realise though, alot of bands dont tend to use modes, but they can come in useful if you are looking for a certain sound. Also, when i've finished my lessons in total, hopefully, the reader will be able to extend the knowledge they've learnt from these lessons, and use it in other scales, such as pentatonics and whatnot.
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#7
A# B  C# D# F  F# G# A#   <-- A# Phrygian Mode
A# C  D  D# F  G  A  A#   <-- A# Major scale


I really went wtf here! You've probably chosen the bitchiest scale of them all to make phrygian. Lots of double notes here (like D and D#)

If you really want to keep this (which I don't suggest, to many sharps and double sharps), make it like this:

A# B  C# D# E#  F# G# A#   <-- A# Phrygian Mode
A# B# Cx D# E#  Fx Gx A#   <-- A# Major scale


Really, it sucks with all the sharps!

Perhaps try a basic one, like ehm.. Dphrygian?

D Eb F  G A Bb C  D <-- D Phrygian
D E  F# G A B  C# D <-- D Major
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#8
yea ok... doesnt aeolian mode give the harmonic minor? coooolll...
and wht the f is Ahavo Rabo Taco Salad??
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#9
have never got the hang of all these notes either... wtf.. its not needed as long as you know the intervals well.. u can extend it to ne fret on ur guitar
unless u r in some symphony grp
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#10
Quote by elvenkindje

I really went wtf here! You've probably chosen the bitchiest scale of them all to make phrygian. Lots of double notes here (like D and D#)

Perhaps try a basic one, like ehm.. Dphrygian?


Lol sorry and thanks I was trying to find a harder one than using the C Major scale just to push them a little bit into using their brains

Ill edit it out in a minute

Quote by kirk_tremonti
yea ok... doesnt aeolian mode give the harmonic minor? coooolll...
and wht the f is Ahavo Rabo Taco Salad??



Lol, its a solo tremonti and the gang wrote for total guitar magazine. Possibly his best solo ever. Its wrote like a proper song, and has a very awesome spanish / exotic sound to it. Ill try find you a link to it

Quote by kirk_tremonti
have never got the hang of all these notes either... wtf.. its not needed as long as you know the intervals well.. u can extend it to ne fret on ur guitar
unless u r in some symphony grp


Well, in the later insstallments, notes come into it alot
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#12
Quote by Logz
Lol sorry and thanks I was trying to find a harder one than using the C Major scale just to push them a little bit into using their brains

Ill edit it out in a minute



Now that I mentioned that, perhaps it's an idea to explain the use of enharmonic spellings (C#/Db) in one of your articles? Because, otherwise, you get tons of people that would write out the Gmajor scale as G A B C D E Gb G

Just one letter per scale, with sharps/flats as needed. You know that rule, don't you?

Oh, almost forgot! It's a cool idea of you
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#13
Quote by kirk_tremonti
can live with that keep 'em comin


Ahavo Rabo Taco Salad


Quote by elvinkindje
Now that I mentioned that, perhaps it's an idea to explain the use of enharmonic spellings (C#/Db) in one of your articles? Because, otherwise, you get tons of people that would write out the Gmajor scale as G A B C D E Gb G

Just one letter per scale, with sharps/flats as needed. You know that rule, don't you?

Oh, almost forgot! It's a cool idea of you


Thanks Ill reorder the contents and explain enharmonics towards the top.
Thanks again, much appriciated
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#14
Just one letter per scale, with sharps/flats as needed. You know that rule, don't you?



is there really somethin like that.. didnt know..
I like guitar...
#15
hey can u give examples of bands/songs that use the above modes.... would like to hear how they use thm...
I like guitar...
#17
Quote by kirk_tremonti
is there really somethin like that.. didnt know..

Yes, that's the main thing what makes people, who read notation, sane

Quote by kirk_tremonti
hey can u give examples of bands/songs that use the above modes.... would like to hear how they use thm...

Hmm, the Ionian feel is pretty much the major scale, so I don't think you'd need an example of that?

Dorian: I'm pretty sure some classic rock has a bit of a step into Dorian (Am pentatonic combined with Dorian = godly) but the main examples I can give you with this one are the awesome songs So What and Impressions. Virtually every recording of it is cool, but be sure to check out Miles Davis' and John Coltranes versions of them!

Phrygian: Metallica is built of this scale. If you'd look into a mode dictionary, you'd see a picture of Metallica at the E Phrygian section

@Logz: This might be an idea too, to give a few well-known songs with each mode, so people can hear what it sounds like.

Got beaten to it
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#18
Quote by elvenkindje

@Logz: This might be an idea too, to give a few well-known songs with each mode, so people can hear what it sounds like.

Got beaten to it


Alrite cool elven, Ill find some songs tomorrow I got a few more things to do on here, then i gotta go work hand in some paperwork
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#20
Satriani is all about the modes. Good lessons, I've been looking into learning more scales/modes and putting chords under them etc. You posted this just in time!
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usually, this is often discussed in the political threads ...

let's change the question: are you pro or antti niemi?
#21
Quote by Logz

A Definition for enharmonics means Two names for one meaning.
Ok, lets use an audible example. Play the 3rd fret of the Low E String. Hear that? That note is called F#. However, It can also be called Gb. These are exactly the same thing.


3rd fret on E is G. Change to;

A Definition for enharmonics means Two names for one meaning.
Ok, lets use an audible example. Play the 2nd fret of the Low E String. Hear that? It is a half step above F, and can be called F#. However, it is a half step below G and so it can also be called Gb. These are exactly the same thing.
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#23
I have a question, if the key of the song is in C and say I want to play the Phrygian mode do I play the mode starting at the 10th fret because isn't a C Major Scale the same as a D Phygrian mode?

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#24
You aren't restricted to positions when playing modes.

Also, Cmajor isn't the same as D Phrygian. Cmajor has the same notes as Ephrygian, but they're not the same! The whole feel is different!

But, if you want it simple.. Modes with the same notes are:
C Ionian - D Dorian - E Phrygian - F Lydian - G Mixolydian - A Aeolian - B Locrian
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#25
Quote by elvenkindje
You aren't restricted to positions when playing modes.

Also, Cmajor isn't the same as D Phrygian. Cmajor has the same notes as Ephrygian, but they're not the same! The whole feel is different!

But, if you want it simple.. Modes with the same notes are:
C Ionian - D Dorian - E Phrygian - F Lydian - G Mixolydian - A Aeolian - B Locrian


So for example, if I'm playing a spanish sounding song in the key of A, I could play the phrygian mode starting at the 5th fret, it would sound good correct? I was just confused on where to play the modes because of the whole the mode is based on the notes in major scale thing.

I understand different modes give out different feels, so it was dumb to call a mode and a major scale the same.
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#26
Really good lesson! I'd suggest some box patterns for the modes, but that's pretty much optional.
#27
umm on part 3.1 of constructing the dorian mode or whatever, you said "in the major scale, there is a c# when in the d dorian mode, there is only a normal D." i believe you meant to say there is only a normal C.
#29
Perhaps you want to redefine these sentences.. Especially the last one! Other than that, it seems pretty flawless to me. Good job Do I get a place in the credits?

Also, In the major scale, there is a C#, however, in the Dorian mode, there is a normal D.

Title:3.2 - Example 2: A# Phrygian Mode Construction

If you apply these intervals to the Bb Major scale, you now have the D Phrygian mode.
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#30
I think this is a really good example of "Oh, I get it now!":

C ionian:   C D E F G A B
D dorian:     D E F G A B C
E phrygian:     E F G A B C D
F lydian:         F G A B C D E
G mixolydian:       G A B C D E F
A aeolian:            A B C D E F G
B locrian:              B C D E F G A

If you want to include that somewhere...
#31
Submitted to UG

Thanks guys. Ive added some credits at the bottom as well
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#32
You're doing well, Phil (that was your name, wasn't it?)

I'm looking forward to the next lesson!
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#33
Lol, yea its Phil. Feel free to call me it

Thanks for your support Im working on the next lesson now, so hopefully, ill post it here tomorrow or tuesday
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#35
alright two questions:

so when playing modes, you still should use the one that is similar to the song's key (ex. C - ionian) but is it possible to put different modes in, such as C - aeolian, or do you have to stick to keeping it the same?

also:

is there any way to remember which modes do what? i don't want to come off as stupid but you know how certain musical theories have like acronyms or something? are there any tricks to remembering modes?
*
#36
I've never heard any personally, but you don't really need them. 5 modes (minus Ionian and Aeolian) isn't much. There are modes for harmonic and melodic minor scales too, so I personally think that it would just confuse you more

EDIT: Phil, I just found a spot where you said "let's try a more harder one"
Last edited by kirbyrocknroll at Apr 9, 2007,