#3
Haha it means whole step whole step half step whole step whole step whole step half step.

That is the forumula for any Major scale. C is the easier because it has no sharps or flats in it.
#5
The most common position would be...


|---------------------------------------8-10-12-|
|----------------------------------8-10---------|
|--------------------------9-10-12--------------|
|------------------9-10-12----------------------|
|----------8-10-12------------------------------|
|-8-10-12---------------------------------------|