Hey, I'm writing a song that includes a chord too hard to bar, and I want to have the song change key after a few minutes from Gb to good ol' D. After experimenting a bit, I have found that I have no clue how to "properly" do it.

the only reference I really have is Jerk Off by tool, which hasn't helped much as I don't have a good enough riff to copy them.

Anyway, all you guys that could do this in their sleep, I could use some help.
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Just wait till an appropriate time, like have a little bass solo that will transition into the next key. Listen to Roll Right by RATM, where the key changes from C# minor to E minor.
Well.... Most key changes go up by a perfect 4th or 5th, or one half tone up.
first off, use F# not Gb.

Secondly, notice that F# is the major third of D. Then, slowly evolve from the shape of F# to F# Phrygian, to D Ionian.

Assuming you actually meant the keys of F# and D, and not F#m and Dm.
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well Gb has 6 flats and D has 2 sharps. they really arent too close on the circle of fifths, so you will have to be creative in your transition. there are a couple ways i would look to do it. the first thing i would think of is to start by emphasizing the notes/chords they share and work from there. kind of build up a feeling that the thing is changing by changing a note or two as you go until youve moved from one to the other.

another thing i see that might work is to start by going up a fourth. this puts you nicely in the key of Db. it works well transitioning from Gb because only one note changes. then move up half a step from Db to D. this might sound very good, but you would have to come up with a good way to go from Db to D.

really, there is no one way to change keys. you kind of have to see where you are, and find out the smoothest path to get where you want to go. i gave a couple ideas but i dont know if they would work for your song. the 'proper' way to do it is the way that sounds best for your song.
In the key of F#, you can have a iii - vi - ii - V - I progression. If we substitute the vi for a VI7, we have a double ii - V progression: iii - VI7 in F# = ii-V in Ab. That secondary dominant happens to be D#7! D#7 could be seen as a tritone substitute of A7. A7 leads to D, so D#7 leads to D. Done
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^ yeah that's a standard way of establishing new tonality, go to the V chord, A (or A7) in this case.

and if you want to get fancy you could throw a quick ii chord (Em) before the V?
actually make that E major instead of E minor, so E A then to D

V/V ('five of five") I think I remember this being called

E is the V of A, which is the V of D
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All I do to modulate is use the V7 of the new key.
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End your phrase on the I (F#) chord of the old key, go to the V7 chord of the new key (A dom 7), then the I chord of your new key (D).
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^ psh, that sounds like it might be awkward sounding. meaning after trying it on my guitar i think it sounds a bit abrupt. you could do it my way where you modulate up from Gb to Db, then play something simple like I IV V in Db. then hit Db on the first beat of your next bar then slide it up to D on beat 2. simple, yet it works and sounds pretty good to me. the ear catches a bit on the slide, but i still like it.
There is tension on the V7 chord, but you want that because it stands out and alerts the audience that something new is happening. It also leads nicely into the I chord. It stands out and builds tension, which is what makes modulation cool.
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^ i mean that the F# to A7 sounds abrupt. the A7 to D is obviously supposed to sound like that, that i know. i just felt that the first part sounded a bit, well, off. obviously there are multiple ways to do it, and each person is going to have thier own prefrence on what they think sounds good.