#2
It's a device that by placing on your guitar, can change the tuning. Example, if you put it on the 1st fret, it raises all the strings tuning by 1 half step. If you put it on the 3rd fret, it raises the tuning by 3 half steps.
#4
A Capo acts like the nut of a guitar. It also raises the guitars pitch by a step/half step.
#5
A clip you place on the neck of the guitar at any fret. That fret now acts as an open note. If you listen to Free Falling (Tom Petty) or Hotel California (Eagles), to name a few, those songs use capos.
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#7
below the capo.

If you put them behind, you're not going to make any difference to the pitch of the string.
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