I'm learning guitar for about 2 1/2 months now. I learned some basic chords and then started to learn C major and minor. I was training them for about 3 weeks, so I can train my fingers (pinky and the ring one) to move more independently. So Now I started to learn D and E major scales, but I was suprised that you place the fingers in the same way for all 3 scales!:


I only can identify ~10 notes from the fretboard, since I don't really get how all the tones are placed on the fretboard. Does this apply to all the major scales? Thanks!
Umm, if you're implying to major scales, yes they all have th same pattern on the fretboard from their root notes.
You seem to be really new to the guitar and to music theory. I could type out an explanation, but do this instead. Go to http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/scales/major_scales_explained.html and read that, completely, and then come back to this thread and post questions about specific things that you did not understand. It's a good article and will help get you started.

I (and I'm sure many other knowledgable UG'ers) will be more than willing to help you once you have done this "background research".

Good luck!