#1
I'm learning guitar for about 2 1/2 months now. I learned some basic chords and then started to learn C major and minor. I was training them for about 3 weeks, so I can train my fingers (pinky and the ring one) to move more independently. So Now I started to learn D and E major scales, but I was suprised that you place the fingers in the same way for all 3 scales!:

x-xx
xx-x
-x-x

I only can identify ~10 notes from the fretboard, since I don't really get how all the tones are placed on the fretboard. Does this apply to all the major scales? Thanks!
#2
Umm, if you're implying to major scales, yes they all have th same pattern on the fretboard from their root notes.
ಥ_ಥ
#3
You seem to be really new to the guitar and to music theory. I could type out an explanation, but do this instead. Go to http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/scales/major_scales_explained.html and read that, completely, and then come back to this thread and post questions about specific things that you did not understand. It's a good article and will help get you started.

I (and I'm sure many other knowledgable UG'ers) will be more than willing to help you once you have done this "background research".

Good luck!