#1
I'm a bit confused. I think i know what a major scale and minor scale is but i want to make sure so please tell me if this is right:

A major scale:

A - w - B - w - C# - h - D - w - E - w - F# - w - G# - h - A and so on.

w=whole step, h= half step

The Minor scale of A Major is sixth on the scale or just a half step behind the root, right? Thats G#.

G# minor would be...

G# - w - A# - h - B - w - C# - w - D# - h - E - w - F# - w - G# and so on.

I'm making it difficult just to test myself.

But I dont get it, why do you have to learn this? They say to learn to make a solo. Does this mean that if you play a particular part of a solo on a particular scale, all notes in it has to be in the scale for it to sound good, and then you can yourself toss around the notes making it unique?

But then you can come around plenty of riffs which dont follow that rule. Black Dog of Led Zeppelin comes to mind where there are two half steps in a row in a particular place:

D|---5--6--7-|
A|-7----------|

This is all confusing. For me it even takes a few minutes just to figure out which notes belong to a particular scale.

I would greatly appretiate any help!
#2
Read some of this: https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/forum/showthread.php?t=503032

The relative minor of a scale starts on the 6th of the scale. The two scales contain the same notes, but their applications and sounds are very different.

You learn scales to know what stuff generally works. Obviously, a great part about knowing the "rules" is breaking them. That leads to stuff like "Black Dog" that makes no theoretical sense, but just sounds good.
#3
You got the A major scale right, but a relative minor is 3 half steps/3 notes behind the major. So the relative minor of A major is:

A (down three notes) F

A (down three semitones) F#

The first step is required to make sure you don't use Gb instead of F#.

So F# minor = A major! Simple!

F# -w- G# -h- A -w B -w C# -h- D -w- E -w- F#

So as you can see, whwwhww is just a fragment of the wwhwwwh pattern. That is how you find a minor key.
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