#1
What is the difference between a 7th and a major 7th? dominant 7th?
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#2
A seventh major seventh is R 3 5 7

Dominant 7th is R 3 5 b7

Minor 7th is R b3 5 b7
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#3
A 7th chord is a dominant 7th [1-3-5-b7], and is a popular chord for transitions between keys.

A Major 7th chord just has the major 7th as the fourth note in the formula instead of the flattened seventh [1-3-5-7]. This chord will have a lot of musical tension to it, as you are combining the tonic with the leading tone in one chord.

Hope that helps
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#5
There are 6 main kinds of "7" chords.

I will assume that you know how to form a chord, at least the notes, from given intervals. If not I can explain that later (or most likely tell you to look at the MT sticky). Also, I can go into common scales over these chords if anyone wants.

The first is the 7 or dominant 7 chord. It will be written as C7 or Bb7 (this is not a B chord with a flattened 7) of F#7 (this is not an F chord with a sharpened 7). The intervals in this kind of chord are 1 3 5 b7.

The second kind of chord is the maj7 chord, pronouned "major seven". It will be written ad Cmaj7 or Bbmaj7 or F#maj 7. The intervals in this kind of chord are 1 3 5 7. Sometimes you will see this kind of chord written as the chord's letter and then a triangle. It means the same thing.

Both of those chords are major. Now we will look at minor chords.

The most common type of 7 in a minor chord is the m7 (minor seven) chord. It is written as Cm7 or Bbm7 or F#m7. The intervals in this chord are 1 b3 5 b7.

A second kind of minor 7 chord is the m/maj7 (minor, major seven) chord. It is written as Cm/maj7 or Bbm/maj7 of F#m/maj7. The intervals in this chord are 1 b3 5 7. It has an odd sound and it not common in popular music, but it can be cool.

Now for the exciting world of diminished chords.

The first kind of "diminished 7" chord is the half diminished chord, the m7b5 chord. It is written as Cm7b5 or Bbm7b5 or F#m7b5. The intervals in this chord are 1 b3 b5 b7.

The second kind of "diminished 7" chord is in fact the actual diminished seven chord or the fully diminished chord. A diminished seventh is flattened twice, so If the original seventh were B, the new seventh would be Bbb. This note is enharmonic to A, though it must be called Bbb for reason into which I'd rather not get at this time. This chord is written Co7 or Bbo7 or F#o7. The intervals in this chord are 1 b3 b5 bb7, though it may be more correct to write it as 1 #2 #4 bb7.


In the end, there are only three kinds of seventh INTERVALS (not chords!). The first interval is the major seventh, maj7. This is something like C to B. The second interval is the minor seventh, 7, something like C to Bb. The third interval is the diminished seventh, bb7. This is something like C to Bbb.
#6
What scales can be played over a m/maj7 chord besides the harmonic minor? No mode of the major scale fits right?
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#7
Quote by Ænimus Prime
What scales can be played over a m/maj7 chord besides the harmonic minor? No mode of the major scale fits right?
Anything with a 1, b3, 5, and 7, but the only scales I know of that contain that are melodic and harmonic minor