#1
Out of interest, is the part of the nerve responsible for ordinary feeling, the same part responsible for pain, and if not, could one feel no pain but still everything else?
#2
If you couldn't feel pain, then logically you couldn't feel anything else with your body
hue
#3
the nerve doesn't distinguish between pain and touch. That gets sorted out in the CNS. The intensity of the stimulus and the amount of nerves being affected by the stimulus are the factors. If you touch something softly, intensity of the stimulus is low. You press against it hard, the intensity is increased, and it hurts.

Now go and work the rest out for yourself.
#4
From Digg.com I think.

Congenital insensitivity to pain (or congenital analgia) is a rare condition where a child cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain.Cognition and sensation is otherwise normal, for instance they can still feel discriminative touch (though not always temperature), and there is no detectable physical abnormality.These children often suffer oral cavity damage (such as having bitten off the tip of their tongue) or fractures to bones. Unnoticed infections, and corneal damage due to foreign objects in the eye are also seen.
#5
^ yeah, i've heard of that. there was this kid who couldn't feel pain and used to pull off these stunts for his friends. he broke his neck when he jumped off a climbing frame and died.
#6
I *think* it's basically the same receptors, but they have an intensity threshold. Meaning that, up to a point, it's just a sensation of touch, to which the body adapts (as in, our clothes don't bother us because we wear them frequently and the body adapts and ignores the sensation), and beyond that point comes the sensation of pain, to which the body doesn't adapt for very good reasons (so you know that something is wrong with you, or that whatever you're touching may cause damage).
Dear God, do you actually answer prayers?

Yes, but only in a way indistinguishable from random luck or the result of your own efforts.