#1
OK,

Can anyone explain to me how protein synthesis occurs? Ive already checked wikipedia but its far too complex with terms which we haven't studied yet. I was wondering if anyone could explain it to me on a GCSE level.

Thanks in advance

-Newbe
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#2
Protein Synethesis. Isn't that just lots of Amino acids grouping together?
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#3
^ What terms don't you understand? I could explain the terms for you, but I can't explain protein synthesis for you.
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#4
Nope, its the process when the DNA in cells replicate as to divide later on i _think_, but then again im not sure.
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#5
Quote by Will_Minus
^ What terms don't you understand? I could explain the terms for you, but I can't explain protein synthesis for you.


OK, could you please tell me what mRNA, tRNA, anticodon, codon, polypeptide and rybosome are? It would really really help me if you could.
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#7
Quote by newbe guitarist
OK, could you please tell me what mRNA, tRNA, anticodon, codon, polypeptide and rybosome are? It would really really help me if you could.


http://www.biochem.uwo.ca/meds/medna2/mRNA.html

?
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#8
Quote by flambe chicken
Never heard of it. Try BBC Bitesize.


I think it's AS/A level biology.
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#9
DNA is transcribed into mRNA which is then sent out into the cytoplasm

mRNA is fed through a ribosome and tRNA attaches amino acids at appropriate points.

The tRNA is actually just floating around in the cytoplasm and when one codon (little section of three nucleotides, CGC for example) on the tRNA happens to matcha codon on the mRNA, the amino acid carried by the tRNA will attach to the growing polypeptide chain.

Eventually, the polypeptide chain will be stopped and sent to somewhere like the endoplasmic reticulum where it will be messed with and put with several other polypeptide chains. Some proteins have just one polypeptide, but most have several.
Bang
#10
^ We really didn't go into that much detail, but that mRNA page was pretty useful!
EDIT: to harmonious
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#11
Quote by newbe guitarist
OK, could you please tell me what mRNA, tRNA, anticodon, codon, polypeptide and rybosome are? It would really really help me if you could.

Oh shit, I'm doing exactly the same thing.

mRNA-Copies the DNA, and leaves the nucleous to tell the tRNA what to tell the Ribosome.
tRNA-Reads the mRNA and tells the ribosome what protein to make.
codon-a group of 3 nitrogen bases in the mRNA(I think), helps make a protein.
anticodon-the opposite of a codon, determines which amino acid is used.
polypeptide-The bonds that hold the amino acids in proteins together.
ribosome-Makes the protein.

EDIT: I see I have been beaten. Oh well, this was coming from a grade 9 Honors Biology course anyway, probably not what you're looking for.
#12
Quote by newbe guitarist
OK, could you please tell me what mRNA, tRNA, anticodon, codon, polypeptide and rybosome are? It would really really help me if you could.


Ribosome - the site of protein synthesis.

Polypeptide - long chain of amino acids

codon - a group of 3 nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid

anticodon - 3 bases complimentary to the codon

mRNA - messenger RNA

tRNA - transfer RNA, carries a specific amino acid
#13
From my AS notes

-RNA polymerase 'unzips' DNA
-mRNA codes DNA with free nucleotides
-mRNA leaves through nuclear pore
-Ribosomes attach to mRNA
-tRNA molecule moves amino acid to correct position in chain (the anti-codon of the tRNA matches the codon of the mRNA)
-ribosome forms peptide bond to create chain
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#14
F&*K i did that like 5-6 months ago, and i forgot oh well screw NY Schools
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#16
yeah, the mrna replicates then goes off to something, i think the endoplasmic reticulum or sumthin, anyways, there the "codes" get broken down into codons. a codon is a set of 3 whatchyamahoozits i think. so the mrna slides along the smooth ER, and then calls for the trna, which matches up with each codon, this trna is the anti-codon...? anyways, the anticodons collect together in long strands to form proteins.


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#17
mRNA-translates a template from DNA by Prying the double helix open and makes a copy of the nitrogen bases with the exception of Thymine which is Uracil in RNA language.
tRNA-transfers aminoacid from cytoplasm's amino acid to a ribosome.
Anticodon-is a nuceotide triplet that's base pairs with a complement codon.
eg.a-g-c-a-g-g
u-c-g-u-c-c
(sorry this is all i remember at the moment ill get my cliff note and add more to this)
#18
Quote by shadowsoldier08
yeah, the mrna replicates then goes off to something, i think the endoplasmic reticulum or sumthin, anyways, there the "codes" get broken down into codons. a codon is a set of 3 whatchyamahoozits i think. so the mrna slides along the smooth ER, and then calls for the trna, which matches up with each codon, this trna is the anti-codon...? anyways, the anticodons collect together in long strands to form proteins.


i tried

Almost.
#19
Quote by newbe guitarist
OK, could you please tell me what mRNA, tRNA, anticodon, codon, polypeptide and rybosome are? It would really really help me if you could.


A codon is 3 bases which are the oposite of the DNA strand. An A on the strand would be a U (instead of T), T on the strand would be an A, C would be a G, G would be C.

An anticodon is the opposite bases of the codon. If the codon were AUG, the anticodon would be UAC.

A Polypeptide is a chain of amino acids.

A ribosome (not rybosome) is the organelle that assembles protein.
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#20
mRNA-messenger RNA-single straded
tRNA-transferRNA-the things that hold the anticodon and amino acid
anticodon- replace codon with opposites U-A, C-G
codon- nucleotide triplets- code for amino acids
polypeptide-string of amino acids bonded together
ribosome- organelle in cytoplasm, site of DNA translation
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#21
thank you all ppl, you really helped me out in this one, IThinkNot, thank you for posting the whole process, but it is a bit too complex for me. If I rephrase what you said in the following way will it still be correct?

"First, the DNA "unzips", then an mRNA comes along, makes a copy of 3 of its bases, leaves nucleus, goes to the cytoplasm to the ribosome, where the anticodon from tRNA attaches to codon from mRNA, and the amino acids chemically bond together to make a polypeptide"
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#23
believe me or not, this is still my GCSE's. Im so dropping Bio next year . It blows, because it really gets hard in A level.
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#24
Ok there are 2 stages

Transcription and Translation


1 Transcription ( takes place within the nucleus of the cell)

The double helix structure of the DNA unwinds ( catalysed by enzymes )

RNA polymerase then moves along the sense stand of the. This catalyses the formation of the mRNA ( Messenger RNA ) molecule matching the complementary nucleotides up. T ( thymine) is replaced with U (uracil) in the mRNA.

The mRNA then comes away from the sense strand and passes out of the nulceus via pores in the nulcear membrane.


2 Translation ( this occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and is where the protein is formed)

Nucleotides are arranged into groups of 3

on the mRNA they are called codons and on tRNA ( transfer RNA , which is a clover shaped molecule with an amino acid attached ) they are called an anti codon.

the mRNA attached to the Ribosome.

the first complemtory anticondon ( on the tRNA molecule ) is then attached to the first codon of the mRNA ( bringing the amino acid with it ) after this happens the mRNA shifts along and it is repeated for the next codon. as this happens peptide bonds form between the amino acids.

This then carries on untill a "stop" codon is reached


Thats what I remember from last year.... I need to do some revision !
Last edited by robopirate at Mar 22, 2007,
#25
I understand that was a tough set of chapters for me too but the more you hear and read it the easier it gets but after those chapters things get easier like taxology, evolution, and ecology(which is pretty interesting), but if you still cant understand it and enjoy learning about life and animals i suggest ecology its like a lite version of biology. Anyway good luck and I hope you understand this stuff and succeed in the class.
#26
I appreciate what everyone has said in this thread, as it was all very useful and diminishedtobme, no thanks man, I'm gonna be taking all the social subjects for my A level, as in geography and languages (wanna become a lawyer) but i really want to shoot for As or A* in my GCSE's, including sciences. Wanna go to a good university n shit...

again,
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#27
Quote by newbe guitarist
I appreciate what everyone has said in this thread, as it was all very useful and diminishedtobme, no thanks man, I'm gonna be taking all the social subjects for my A level, as in geography and languages (wanna become a lawyer) but i really want to shoot for As or A* in my GCSE's, including sciences. Wanna go to a good university n shit...

again,




LAW is good. Well done on picking the right degree.
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#28
I am considering to study corporate law (I think thats how you call it), because thats where the money's at in my opinion. Which type of law are you studying Harmonious?
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#29
Quote by newbe guitarist
I am considering to study corporate law (I think thats how you call it), because thats where the money's at in my opinion. Which type of law are you studying Harmonious?


Well done on choosing the right degree with the right specialization. I'm also planning on being a Corporate Lawyer. I'm currently studying Land Law II, Public and Constitutional Law II, Contract Law, Advocacy and English Legal History. Next year, I will take Employment Law, Agency and Partnership (Contract II), Criminal Law I & II (I already did Criminal Law for A level) and Equity & Trusts.
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#30
Whoa, thats pretty hardcore Oh well, I better start worrying more about my Biology test tomorror rather than what I will do in university . Im off to do some revision/lay off the computer. Again, thanks to everyone who helped me out.
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