I know scales and chords. But I hear people talking about, this scale is the dominant of this etc.

What is all that about? I would like to learn about how different scales etc relate to eachother.
To know how they relate to eachother, it helps if you understand intervals.
If you know intervals, then you know the scale formulas.
The scale formulas show how the scales relate to eachother. Just compare formulas by looking at them, and then listening to them when you play them.
I don't think so, no. A dominant entails a major third and minor seventh.

B Locrian contains all the same notes of the C major, but it's formula contains a b3. I'm really not an expert. So don't take my word for this. But I think G mixolydian would be the dominant scale over C major.

Mixolydian - 1 2 3 4 5 6 b7 1

It contains all the same ntes as the C major scale, but it's interval structure contains the minor seventh and major third that's needed to form a dominant chord.
Me thinks. >_>
anyone that knows can correct me if I'm wrong.
Each scale degree has numerous names. Here's a list of them:

1: Tonic
2: Super Tonic
3: Mediant
4: Sub Dominant
5: Dominant
6: Sub Mediant
b7: Sub Tonic
7: Leading Tone

Discouraged was right about G being the Dominant of C.
Great, thanks.

Now that I know the names, what can I do with them? Or is this just all the same as modes?
They're all linked to modes, as far as I can see. But now I'm gong to push to learn something from your thread too.
I assume each of those 1 - 7 names that Vittu's posted is relative to a mode. 1 being the tonic and therefore Ionian, and 6 being the Sub Mediant and therefore Aeolian, for example?
My question is, if Locrian is relative to the leading tone of a major scale, where does that b7 or the 'Sub Tonic' come in? It looks to be the odd one out to me. 7 modes, but 8 names?
To Really start understanding a scale, about the most important thing to understand
is how the scale harmonizes.

What does that mean? It means what kinds of chords the scale forms and how they
relate to each other.

So how do you "form the chords"? Start on every note of the scale and consider it
the root. Now take every other note in sequence to form chords. If you take
every other note three times you'll form triads, four times you'll form 7th chords,
more times and you'll form other extended chords.

All those chords you make are the chord family of the scale. The chord family
represents various reccurring themes you'll see within the context of the scale.

That's how to understand scales in a nutshell.
Look...you have C major and it's 7 modes...and now you want to know how they relate. Here it is short.

For example we'll take a II-V-I harmony, in C , that's Dm7 - G7 - CMaj7 or just Dm - G - C.

Now you know the second mode of C major is D dorian, fifth mode is G myxolydian, and of couse Ionian is the first.

Now, Dorian mode is perfect to play over IIm7 chords, in this case that's our Dm7, and the Myxolydian is perfect to play over a dominant seventh chord - V7(The seventh chord built on a V degree(Dominant is the name of that degree) of a scale). In this case we'll play G myxolydian over G7 or just G. Over C you just go with C Ionian(Cmajor).

If we had a IV chord (in this case F or FMaj7) in our progression the best thing is to use the Lydian mode over it...same scale, but different starting note. The fourth of C major - F

In case of a VIm chord substituting the I(in this case Aminor instead of C) you would have to use the Aeolian mode, because it corresponds to the scale degree.

And by any case if you had some outside dominants...by that I mean for example D7(which is the dominant chord to G) that has F# in it, not F like in the C major scale and G myxolydian, you could either use a D Myxolydian(Myxo is great over dom7 chords) or you could just raise the fourth in your C major(seventh in G myxolydian) melody so it contains F#. You there by get either C Lydian or G Major...those are the same scales, starting on different notes. You will be in an outside scale (G Major) just for that D7 chord. D7 is the dominant chord in G major, get it?

You get the relationship between the motherscale and it's modes now? Or I just confused you more
I am Žile, I'm from Serbia, and I like guitars... and beans of course...never underestimate well cooked beans!

Join Alternate tunings