#1
Alright, firstly I'd like to clear it out that I'm a complete n00b when it comes to theory, since I never really got any proper guitar lessons from a teacher. I somehow simplified everything for myself so that I'd have an easier and far more understandable approach to analysing what I'm playing. So please refrain from using far too complex theory jargon when solving the issue that I have here!

Okay, I know that for, let's say the G major scale (G, A, B, C, D, E, F#), the following chords can played over the scale:

G, Am, Bm, C, D, Em, F#dim.

Now I use this idea the other way round; i.e., for a G major CHORD, the G, Am, Bm, C, D, Em and F#dim SCALES can be played without the fear of playing any dissonant notes.

But when it comes to the F#dim, which sorta diminished should I play? As far as I know, there a two kinds of diminished scale: the WH and the HW.
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#3
F#dim is F# A C or 1 b3 b5. Play any F# scale with those notes/intervals. In other words, both the WH and HW scale will work, as well as F# Locrian (and heaps of others)

Also, if you play notes from A minor or C major over a G chord then you are playing G mixolydian. A minor contains the notes A B C D E F G, and C major contains the notes C D E F G A B. But if you play those scales over a G chord then G is the root note, so the scale is G A B C D E F, which is G mixolydian

Similarly, if you play notes from B minor or D major over a G chord you are playing G Lydian
If you play notes from E minor over a G chord you are playing G major (Ionian)
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