#1
Okay finally im getting a grasp on guitar! and im starting by learning theory so itll make everything make much more sense.

Okay im stuck though!

( tell me if im right.. )

Okay is a octave the same thing as a key?---

and there are 12 notes in an octave\key, 7 being naturals ( not sharp or flat ) 5 being flat or sharp non naturals.. right?

But it doesnt tell me how many keys\octaves there are and were they are.

( view this link click

-------------------------------------------------------

Now its showing me pentatonic scale being a 5 note scale.. in the key of E, which ties back to the key thing, meaning there must be 12 notes in a scale?

Confused* can you answer any of these questions lol.
#2
no. a key is a set of notes based off of one note. like if your playing in the key of c, like, maybe, c major, a chord progression might be something like c, to f. an octave is the same note only higher or lower. like if you play your low e string, then your high e string, the high e string is e, but a different octave

i put no thought into that whatsoever so i hope it makes sense, it does to me
gear

Fender Standard Tele (with kill-switch)
PRS SE Custom
Fender Hot Rod Deville
Boss DD-3 Delay
Boss GE-7 Eq
Boss DS-1 distortion
Electro-Harmonix Big Muff
Boss CS-3 Compression
Digitech Whammy
Dunlop ZW-45 Zakk Wylde Signature wah
#3
The key just reffers to the root note, or the note the scale resolves in. In the example of the basic minor pentatonic scale, the scale is in the key of A because it starts on an A note.

Octave reffers to pitch. The 12th fret on the E string in a chromatic scale would be the start of a scale in the key of E, only one octave higher. The notes are all identical. You're right in that there are 12 notes in an octave, the 13th being the start of the next octave. This is speaking strictly chromaticly though, I'm honestly not sure of how it works in Major scales etc, considering I'm only learning this stuff myself.

So to answer at least one of your questions, no, octave is not the same as a key.