#3
look at the circle of fifths going in the wrong direction........fourths!

a fifth up gets you to the same note as a fourth down (forgetting about octaves)
#4
2 ways of looking at it...(all based on the same circle)

1. Circle of fifths moves clockwise, Circle of fourths moves counter-clockwise
2. Clockwise is moving up a fifth, Counterclockwise is moving down a fifth

i.e. C to F can be seen as up a fourth or down a fifth

edit..oops too slow, seljer said pretty much the same thing
Last edited by Stash Jam at Oct 29, 2007,