I am looking into doing some drum recording at home and I am trying to look for the best way to do this.
I play all kinds of instruments but the help I need is specifically with drums.

What would I need to record drums on my computer?

I will be using Cakewalk sonar 7 producer edition and shure sm57 mics.
I know I need a preamp but do I need a preamp and a mixer to mix the different mics together into one recording?
I think that would be either instead of multiple tracks on Sonar.
Is there such a thing as a preamp/mixer combo?

Price is defiantly an issue.
The cheaper the better, but I do want good quality.
I am guessing the $200-$300 if that is possible.

I guess you could say I am a "recording n00b", I just really need some help with recording drums.

You can run them into a mixing board then just run it to your computer. I'm guessing you have no more then 5 mics so just get a 6 channel board.
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Looks like you need help recording in general. First thing you'll need are some good A/D (analogue to digital) converters. These take the analogue sounds from the mic preamps and convert it to ones and zeros so your computer can manipulate the sound. These converters usually come as a PCI card or a USB or Firewire breakout box. I like M-Audio's delta series, as they don't have built-in preamps. I like to use outboard preamps as they're usually better, and they allow for expansion.

So once you have your A/D converters in place, you'll need some preamps. There is a choice now. You could buy preamps (recommended) or you could buy a mixer. In my opinion a mixer is useless in a computer-centric recording operation, since you can do the mixing in your software. So I think you should grab some budget-but-not-cheap preamps. ART is a good brand, but stay away from Behringer, their preamps suck.

Now, to the drum recording part. You won't get good results with a couple SM57s, I don't care how good you are. You'll need some more sensitive microphones. I'd recommend hanging a matched pair of condenser microphones over your kit, and then close micing the snare with your SM57, and close micing the kick with your other one. This will give you a great sound.
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I usually mic the drums overhead with a mxl990, it works pretty well, but if you need isolated sounds, i cant help you much their.