What efects pedal did they use in the 80's for distortion/overdrive? I've heard the Pro-Co Rat was used pretty extensively.

Also what about for Phaser, Flanger, and Compressor/Sustainer?
In the eighties the most common distortion that was used was not a pedal. It was the straight edge british metal sound from the marshall half stacks bro. As for chorus flange, phaser, compression and sustain Mxr is the best to rely on. I play alot of 80s metal and i use a mxr phase 90 and an mxr stereo chourus and a bulit in flange on my half stack, but i would recommend using a evh flange or an mxr regular flange(cant remeber the name) good luck on your endeavors. let me know if you need anymore metal sound help. If you dont have a marshall halfstack i would recommend anything from boss or digitech as well as mxr. I would say get the metal zone pedal from boss or the Distortion factory from digitech( i have had alot of experience with this pedal and its capabilities of being able to mimick almost any kind of sound you want to get from distortion can be found here. the only bad thing is that whatever kind of cabinet you are playing through is what cabinet sound you will get. but you can get eighties metal out of it pretty good) or the distortion plus pedal from mxr also good for any late 70s kinda stuff. good luck brother.
Distortion + or the new MXR Distortion III would work very well along with a Tube Screamer to boost. I really liked the new MXR Distortion III but returned it, the distortion on the JSX was better so it didn't have much use but I'd HIGHLY recommend it to anyone without a good gain channel on their TUBE amp.
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As mentioned MXR pedals were used a fair mount, but it is important to remember that many of those guys had huge rack rigs, using Rocktron, ADA, or Marshall preamps going into Marshall or some kind of other power amp. In general, I would say either go with a rack setup like that, but if you want something more straight forward:

OD: Ibanez TS9, ProCo Rat, MXR Distortion+
Compressor: MXR or other multiband
Phaser: MXR Phase 90, Boss Phase Shifter
Flanger: MXR M-117 Flanger, Boss Flanger, Ibanez FL9
Delays: Anything goes really, but delays of the time tended to be rack units
Reverb: Most stuck to their amp reverbs. As long as its fairly full and lush you're good.
AMP: Most mid gain amps will do, like the Peavey Windsor, Marshall JCM900, etc. Just be sure you have an overdrive pedal for that extra crunch
I've always been a fan of that Jake E. Lee sound with just a mid-gain Marshall amp with an OD in front of it.
I was thinking about this:

OD: Boss OS-2 (Distortion/Overdrive w/ MIX feature
Compressor/Sustainer: Boss
Phaser: Marshall
Flanger: Marshall
Tremolo/Vibrato: Marshall
Reverb/Delay: Boss Re-201 Space Echo (re-issue, not the original 201)

The Comp/Sus is the Boss CS-2 or something like that.

Also the phaser/flanger/trem/vibe is a neat Marshall pedal I found on MusiciansFriend for like $120 it's all built into one small stompbox. I have yet to try it out. There's sound clips on the site, but I don't think I should trust those.

Anyway, tell me if you think the above would be a good setup for David Bowie, The Romantics, Poison kinda sound.

I don't know what your budget is, but I would skip Marshall pedals that aren't ODs/Distortions. In my experience they don't sound bad but are just kind of bland and uninspiring. Look at an MXR Phase 90 for a Phaser and a Boss Flanger or MXR Flanger as a Flanger. Tremolo isn't a very essential effect for 80's rock in my book, so I would consider skipping it. the Space Echo won't most likely do long Delays the best, for for Reverb/Echo it is fantastic. A more versatile pedal would be a Line 6 Echo Park or Boss DD-6.

Otherwise, those look like solid choices. I would also heavily advise you to look into a Boss Chorus or an Electro Harmonix Small Clone Chorus, as Chorus is extremely important to an 80's effects chain and for what you're looking to play. If you absolutely need a tremolo, the Boss will work, but I don't think the other effects on it are really worth it.