#1
What does it mean when theres a number/note that is smaller and less bolder than the other notes. its not a hammer on or pull of, its just written smaller and kinda like an itallic except not slanted.
#2
Can't remember the exact name for it. But you like, play the smaller note just before the bigger note next to it. like a hammer on but faster I guess.
#3
I think you may be referring to grace notes. They often look exactly how you described as a smaller note with a slash running through them.

Without going into the large debate on their functions, they are pretty much a secondary note that is played before the main note (the bigger one in front of it) and the speed at which is played is usually discernible by the tails it has.

That's about it I think, if I'm wrong feel free to correct me.
#4
Yep, it's a grace note. Formally know as acciacatura (I think that's the right spelling). Play very quickly to lead into the main note.
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+1