This shouldn't take long.

1. I just started playing bass for a band. I've played bass for about 2 years though, just not in a band setting. I brought a 300 watt Soundcraft PA head with one moniter, w/ a 12 inch speaker and a horn, to band practice, and was audible, but on the edge of clipping. Any big accent would sound BAD. Is this because I don't have enough watts, because the speaker can't handle it (though it is rated to), or because of it being a PA? Bass is the only thing going through it.

If I get a bass amp (hopefully this summer, when I get a job), will it have to be 300+ watts? That sounds a little extreme to me.

2. You know how old Fenders and Rics had those covered bridges and that metal piece that went over the strings? What are they called, and can the be bought seperately and retrofitted? Specifically the Fenders.
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Ummm, petrol? Nip down to your local petrol station, buy a litre of the stuff and soak your balls in it, light them up and start playing with them.
First off, the PA is going to have crappy tone cause it's not designed for bass preamping. The monitor might be not be rated high enough for that amount of wattage, but you would have to check the monitor for that.

300 watts is really all that loud for a bass amp.

They're called covered bridges, and you can order them separately and are a pretty easy install.
300W should be loud enough for most purposes - sounds like you need another speaker cab.

It could be that the input level is too high.

Fender bridge covers can be bought a variety of places - ebay is probably the cheapest.