#1
When I first picked up my mums acoustic guitar I set myself a rough path to follow in order to learn how to play. Firstly, I learned how to tune my guitar. Now I'm focusing on major scales and chords, and the theory behind it.

1). Are there major scales for diminished or augmented root notes, for example, A#maj?

2). What is the Bmaj chord formation?

3). And why are certain notes repeated in a chord, for example the D chord, root note is D, 3rd is F#, and 5th is A, but when it is played, the notes are D, A, D, F#?

Like this:

e:------------2------------ > F#
B:------------3------------ > D
G:------------2------------ > A
D:------------o------------ > D
A:------------x------------ > X
E:------------x------------ > X

4). Why are they not in the order of 1st, 3rd and 5th as they appear in the Dmaj scale?

And

5). When playing a major chord, why are more notes played than it actually takes to make the chord? For example Gmaj:

e:------------3------------ > G
B:------------o------------ > B
G:------------o------------ > G
D:------------o------------ > D
A:------------2------------ > B
E:------------3------------ > G

Is this because the root, 3rd and 5th notes of the Gmaj scale are G, B and D and can be played any number of times in the same chord? Why are different chords played on a different number of strings?

6). Why can the Gmaj chord also be played like this:

e:------------3------------ > G
B:------------3------------ > D
G:------------o------------ > G
D:------------o------------ > D
A:------------2------------ > B
E:------------3------------ > G

7). Can someone please provide me a diagram of the Circle Of Fifths, and also an explanation behind what it does?


I'm sorry if these questions are stupid and the answer should be obvious to anyone, but I really want to understand as much as possible about music theory and how it relates in practice on the guitar.
#2
1) Theres no such thing as an augmented or diminished root note. Every note has a major scale. A#maj - the A# major scale

2) Numerous websites will tell you chord formations

3) To emphasize the root note?.. im not sure on that one

4) Thats to do with the tuning of the guitar.

5) Thats similar to 3)... I think it just makes the chord sound fuller. Yes, the root, 3rd and 5th notes of the Gmaj scale are G, B and D and can be played any number of times in the same chord.

6) The first example you are playing 0 on the B string, which is a B note. The second example you are playing 3 on the B string with is a D note. You see that these notes are the 3rd and 5th of G therefore will both sound acceptible in the chord

7)Circle of fifths
#3
Thanks, that helps.

But now, this diminished/augmented doesn't seem to be what I think it is then. A lesson I read on this site described a diminished note to be simply one semitone lower, and an augmented one is one semitone higher; but this is obviously not so. I must have misunderstood. Can someone please explain?

As for question no. 4, back in my music lessons in high school, I was taught that there was a special word with theory behind it in relation to why these notes appear in different order but I can't remember why.

And, are you saying that there is a major scale for all 12 notes in music?
#4
Those definitons are correct, but they're referring to scales degrees and chord formation to elaborate on how the notes function in that context. If they're just "notes" then the note a semitione higher is simply "the next note"
Actually called Mark!

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