I currently use .009-.046 gauge strings on all of my guitars, but I was going to put .010-.056 gauge to better handle lower tunings. Will I need my intonation adjusted?
probably, and if your going to stick to a lower tunning you might want to have the truss rod adjusted.
Yeah you should get an intonation adjusted. It is fairly simple, you can do it yourself.
Main Rigs
Thineline tele with SD lil '59

Ibanez Artcore AM-73

Line 6 Variax 500


Line 6 X3 live
Digitech RP-500
Ibanez Weeping Demon

Roland JC-120
Rocktron VT-60